HR KPI for News and Mass Media

Without any doubt we are living in the age of information. News is all around us. Every morning people read newspapers and visit web pages of most popular online news agencies. There is a very high competition in mass media business. Everyone tries to be the first to deliver news to people. This contributes to popularity of periodicals, newspapers, magazines and online media. The more people are reading newspaper the more they charge for advertising, and in fact this is how modern mass media survive. Mass media sell news which customers buy, but they make most of the profits through advertising. That’s why every newspaper or magazine should spend money in a very reasonable and economic way. This especially concerns human resource departments of major news agencies. HR department does not produce anything, but only organizes work of personnel in an efficient way. If human resource managers failed to reach their goals the company may suffer sufficient losses. In fact, human resource department is one of the most important and mass media. What is a newspaper? These are journalists, reporters and editors. If a newspaper failed to be the best and to have its regular target audience it won’t survive. That’s why it is very important to hire the best professionals in mass media industry and create suitable working conditions for them. At the same time, human resource department must make sure that every dollar is spent efficiently.

For this reason evaluation of HR performance in mass media is an important element business management system and strategic goals implementation plan. The more efficiently personnel works, the better are the results and potential revenues. Balanced Scorecard is highly recommended to be used for performance evaluation purposes in mass media. It will not only measure current performance but also indicate progress of human resource department in terms of implementation of strategic goals. Evaluation process is triggered by key performance indicators which show company progress of regress against set goals and objectives. It should be mentioned that key performance indicators differ from industry to industry and mass media is not an exception here. Let’s review several key performance indicators characteristic of mass media HR BSC.

As known, many journalists are working part time or teleworking. This saves company money and enabled top management and human resource department to offer better salaries to such journalists and reporters. Managers satisfaction with teleworking is one of the widely used indicators in human resource evaluation in mass media. Indeed, is not easy to work if an employee as far away but not in the office. If managers are not happy with such type a work it wouldn’t be reasonable to expect great outcomes. That’s why it is important to measure managers satisfaction with teleworking. On the other hand, there are journalists who was still working and their satisfaction rate have to be assessed as well. If both parties are happy with cooperation, both managers and employees will show their top performance. It is also important to evaluate such a key performance indicator as average travel costs per employee since journalists are traveling a lot.

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Populating Visual FoxPro Reports with data on the Fly


Visual FoxPro’s report writer is a powerful full-featured report writer that provides all the tools you need to create and ship compelling reports with your application. On Most occasions, you can create Visual FoxPro reports based only on data that already exists (e.g. an existing table, query or view). However, imagine that the data you need to populate your report with does not exist as a table that can be readily added to your report’s data environment nor does it exist as a set of tables upon which you can execute a straight-forward SQL Query or view! This article describes how you can populate a Visual FoxPro report at run time by collecting report criteria from users, deriving the data from your tables based on that criteria, creating a cursor and then populating the cursor with the derived data all at run time.

Who should read this article?

This article assumes some familiarity with building and developing applications with Microsoft Visual FoxPro 9


One of the key benefits of using Visual FoxPro as your primary development tool is that it provides all of the tools you need to build powerful, compelling full-featured applications that are fast and feature rich!

One of the features of Visual FoxPro that makes this possible is the newly revamped report writer that ships with Visual FoxPro 9! Because of the need to provide or make data available for your report or label before you print it, the Report Writer provides a variety of ways to make data easily available for your report.

One method of making data available for your report and incidentally the most often used is to write a report that is always based on the same data sources. This method would actually require you to add tables or views to the data environment of a report or to use a DO <query> command in the Init event of the report’s data environment. Alternatively, you could execute a query by creating an executing an SQL Statement in the Init event of the report’s data environment.

A second method is when you need to create a report that utilizes separate sets of data sources for the report. In this case, you would dynamically open those data sources at run time by using a USE <table>, USE <view>, DO <query> or SQL SELECT statement to the click event of a button or other code that will run before you issue a REPORT or LABEL command.

However, what happens when the data for your report is not in a table that can be dynamically queried with a SELECT SQL statement nor is it in a form that you can simply open with a USE command! The Richness of the Visual FoxPro programming language allows you to easily solve this problem as this article will demonstrate. To demonstrate the concept being discussed, imagine that you need to print or generate the Income and Expense Report for your company as at a given day! This would mean that you need to keep a daily running balance of each account in your General Ledger chart of accounts in a table that we shall perhaps call ActGLDayTot. The sections that follow will describe how to create these tables and their structure as well as the code that generates the report.

Printing Reports in Visual FoxPro

As already noted, you need to make data available for a report before you proceed to print the report. To print a report in Visual FoxPro, you will need to issue the REPORT FORM <reportname> command. For the full syntax of the REPORT FORM command, see your Visual FoxPro 9 online help documentation.

If you issue the REPORT FORM command with no tables in the data environment and no data sources open in the data environment of the report, the report simply appears to flash and then close again! To avoid this situation, you will either need to add data to the data environment or use the Init event of the data environment to make data available within the data environment prior to printing. When the data does not already exist in a query or in a form that can be directly queried, what will you do?

Making Data Available on the Fly

Because data must be first made available prior to running a report, you will need to issue an SQL SELECT statement or open a table at least in the Init event of the Data Environment of the report. However, if your data does not exist in a form in which you can easily build a view over it or a query over it and if it does not exist in a form in which it can be added as a table then neither of the methods discussed so far will yield the desired results!

This means that you must find a new way of making the data available to your program. A closer examination of how you would use the SQL SELECT statement provides an insight into how you could do this. The general form of the syntax of the SQL SELECT Statement we want to consider is as follows:


SELECT [ALL | DISTINCT] [TOP nExpr [PERCENT]] Select_List_Item [, …]

   FROM [FORCE] Table_List_Item [, …]

   [WHERE JoinCondition | FilterCondition [AND | OR JoinCondition | FilterCondition] …]

   [INTO StorageDestination | TO DisplayDestination]

This form of the syntax indicates that the SQL SELECT statement creates a query and then fetches the required information from the table into a storage destination most usually, a cursor (temporary table), table or array. The cursor representing storage destination is then used as the source of data for the report. Based on this actuality, we can deduce that our report would run if we created a cursor object using the CREATE CURSOR or a temporary table using CREATE TABLE in the Init event of the data environment. This would make data available to the report and would thus prevent the report from again closing immediately upon being opened.

How would this actually work in practice?

1.       Create your Report: First off, you would have to create a report a report in the Report Designer. You can do this by choosing the Reports Node in the Project Manager and then choosing the New button. When the New Report dialog box displays, you would then choose New Report. Visual FoxPro would then create a new blank report named Report1 and open it in the Report Designer

2.       Layout your Report: Now that the report designer is open, you can start laying out your report. Usually, you would do this by dragging fields from the data environment unto the report canvas. But in this case, you have no data in the data environment so you must set the properties of the report manually. You must therefore display the Reports Controls Toolbar by choosing Reports Control Toolbar from the View main menu. Once the toolbar displays, you can layout your report surface by performing the following action:

a.      Select a control from the toolbox to be placed on your report. If you select a control such as a text box control and then click on the detail band of the report, Visual FoxPro automatically opens the Field Properties dialog box so you can set not only the source of data for the field but also other characteristics of the field.

b.      In the Expression box on the General tabbed page, enter the expression that will server as a source of data for the report. You will enter it in the format cursorname.fieldname where Cursorname will represent the name of the cursor that you will create (of course you have not created it yet otherwise you would simply have chosen the … button to allow you select it from the expression builder[i]). If you click a control such as a Label control, place it anywhere on the report and then type where the Insertion point appears to add a descriptive label. For example, click a label control on the report and then add a descriptive label for each text box in the Page header. You can add descriptions such as Field One and Field Two. You can add a report title (e.g. Test Report) by clicking on the Label control, and then clicking at the appropriate position on the Report Header. To set styles and font sizes for your captions, right-click the appropriate caption, choose Properties and then choose the Style tabbed page. In the Style tabbed page, you can make the appropriate settings under the Font box or make any other settings as necessary. Remember to save your work as you go along.

c.       Now that you have gotten fields onto your report, you can apply the usual formatting to the report such as calculated fields, lines, etc

3.       Set Properties for the Data Environment: You will still want to prevent your report from automatically shutting down when you try to run it so you must set properties for the data environment as follows:

a.      Right-click your report and then choose the Data Environment menu command from the shortcut menu that displays. The Data Environment – Report Designer opens. It is empty, showing that no data sources have been added to it.

b.      Right-Click inside the Data Environment and then choose the Properties menu command to display the properties sheet for the Data Environment.

c.       Set the AutoOpenTables property to false. When you set this property to false, the report does not attempt to open the tables or views in the data environment upon running of the report. If this were to happen, the report would simply find that the data environment did not contain any data and then the report would close abruptly. You are now ready to add code for the report as described in the next step (step 4 – Writing code to make data available).

4.       Write Code to make Data Available: Remember that the data is to be fetched or made available only at run time. So you must now write the code that will make this data available for your report. You will do this in the Init event of the data environment by writing code such as:

a.      Locate the Init event of the data environment in the properties sheet and then double-click it to open the code window.

b.      In the code window, type the code that creates your cursor by using the CREATE CURSOR command and also write code to add several records to the cursor by using the APPEND command. This code could look as follows:

CREATE CURSOR Testcursor (Field1 c(10) unique,Field2 i)


REPLACE TestCursor.Field1 WITH “TEST”

REPLACE TestCursor.Field2 WITH 50


REPLACE TestCursor.Field1 WITH “TEST2”

REPLACE TestCursor.Field2 WITH 100


REPLACE TestCursor.Field1 WITH “TEST3”

REPLACE TestCursor.Field2 WITH 150


c.       Close the code window and close the data environment designer

d.      Quickly test your report by choosing the Print Preview button on the toolbar. The report should open in Print Preview mode.

5.       Save and Run your Report: Now that you have created your report and generated data at run time, you will need to save the report and then to run it. You can test whether your report will run by performing the following action:

a.      Choose the Save button on the toolbar to ensure that you have saved your report.

b.      Close the report by choosing the Close button. The report appears under the Reports node in the Project Manager.

c.       To run this report, select the report (Report1) in the project manager and then choose the Preview button. The report opens in print preview mode.

6.       Running Your Report Through the User Interface: You would typically make your report available to the users of your application through the application user interface. For example, you may provide a form through which users can select your report and then press either a preview or a print button. To do this, you will have to use the REPORT FORM command to run the report programmatically. If you want your report to be available through the application user interface, you will have to perform the following action:

a.      Select the Forms node on the Documents tabbed page of the Visual FoxPro project manager and then choose the New button. The New Form dialog box displays.

b.      Choose the New Form button. Visual FoxPro creates a new form named Form1 and opens it in the Form Designer.

c.       Display the Forms Control Toolbox if it is not already displayed by choosing the Form Controls Toolbar menu on the view menu.

d.      Select the Command Button control on the Forms Control Toolbox and then click on the form. Visual FoxPro will create a new command button called Command1.

e.       Double-Click Command1 button to display the Code window for its Click event.

f.        You can now enter the following code:



g.      Click the Save button on the button bar to save the form you have created.

h.      Run the form by either pressing Ctrl + E or by choosing the Run toolbar button on the toolbar. The form runs.

i.         Now click the command button to run the report. The report appears in print preview window.

Applying the concept to a Real Life Situation

The example already illustrated has been kept deliberately simple. Now, this must be applied in a real-life situation. In the example shown, the cursor is populated by issuing APPEND BLANK commands. In a real-life application however, it may be possible that your data may already exist, needing only to be read back and re-arranged into a format that your report can print. Lets illustrate this by building a Trial Balance Report as at a given day (Trial balances are usually printed as at a given period end date).

To be able to print such a trail balance, we would have to know the balance of an account as at a given day. Lets now accept that such data is stored day-by-day as transactions are passed in a table called ActGLDayTot and this table could be created with the following SQL Statement:

CREATE TABLE ActGLDayTot(BatchNo c(20) PRIMARY KEY,AccountCode c(15),;

ValueDate D,CurrYear i,NextYear i,PeriodNumb i,MonthNumb i,Debitamt Y,;

CreditAmt Y,Balance Y)

For each account in the General Ledger Master file, we want to obtain the account’s balances as at the specified day so that we will be able to build the trial balance. Now imagine that your General Ledger Master table could be created with the following SQL Statement:

CREATE TABLE ActGLMast(AccountCode c(15) PRIMARY KEY,AccountName c(50),;

AccountType c(40),CurrBal Y)

The following code is placed in the Init Event of the data environment of our report:

* This Code Constructs the cursor used in the Report

LOCAL dValueDate AS Date,cBranchCode aS Character,intNoOfRows as Integer,oDT as Object ,lAnswer as Logical


STORE “” TO cBranchCode

STORE ({  /  /    }) TO dValueDate

STORE 0 TO intNoOfRows

* 1) Open the form and obtain the parameters


dValueDate = frmMgtTBalByDate.txtValueDate.Value

cBranchCode = frmMgtTBalByDate.txtBranchCode.Value




lAnswer  = oDT.GetTransByDate(dValueDate,cBranchCode,arrTR,intNoOfRows,chrProgTitle)

CREATE CURSOR MgtTBalByDate (AccountCode c(20),AccountName c(50),AccountType c(50),TBalDate D,MTDDebit Y,MTDCredit Y,YTDDebit Y,YTDCredit Y,UserName C(10))




In the code above memory variables are declared that will be used either to hold the user’s report criteria or to store and transport data. The DIMENSION command creates an array that will be used to return data from a Data Aware Class that encapsulates the functionality of the ActGLDayTot table. Another thing to note is how we have allowed users to specify the data to be included in the report by entering the specified date for which they want a trial balance. To collect this information from the users, the line DO FORM frmMgtTBalByDate.Scx runs the report parameter form so users can enter criteria. When  the user clicks the Ok button in that form, a THISFORM.Hide command temporarily hides the form from the user while the lines immediately following the DO FORM command collect the information on the form. The line frmMgtTBalByDate.RELEASE then removes the form from memory.

Next, the line oDT = CREATEOBJECT (‘ActGLDayTot’) creates an instance of the class ActGLDayTot and stores a reference to it in the object variable oDT. The line lAnswer = GetTransByDate… calls the method in the class to return the specific data we want, passing the necessary parameters collected form the user along with the array that will be used to store and transport the data back to our report.

As we did earlier, we then use a CREATE CURSOR MgtTBalByDate command to create a cursor with the necessary fields. The line APPEND FROM ARRAY arrTR populates the table. The report is then made to recognize this cursor in its data environment with the line THIS.OpenTables().

By separating the code that does the collection and processing of information from the Report’s own Init event, we are able to make this code available always form multiple locations because it is contained in a data aware class. The code contained within the GetTransByDate method of the ActGLDayTot class is as follows:

* Obtain Transaction By Date

PARAMETERS dTranDate,cBranchCode,arrTR,intNoOfRows,chrProgTitle

LOCAL cMsg AS Character,intRows AS Integer,lGLMastInUse AS Logical

LOCAL lGLDayTotInUse as Logical

* Initialize your variables to the correct types to avoid any errors

STORE “” TO cMsg

STORE 0 TO intRows

IF TYPE(‘dTranDate’) <> ‘D’

      cMsg = “You must enter transaction date!”


      RETURN .F.


IF TYPE(‘intNoOfRows’) <> “N”

      RETURN .F.


IF TYPE(‘arrTR’,1) <> “A”

      cMsg = “Array of Transactions not found!”


      RETURN .F.


IF TYPE(‘cBranchCode’) <> “C”

      cMsg = “ALL”


      cMsg = ” FOR BranchCode = ‘” + cBranchCode + “‘”


IF USED(‘ActGLMast’)

      lGLMastInUse = .T.


      USE ActGLMast IN 0

      lGLMastInUse = .F.




IF USED(‘ActGLDayTot’)

      lGLDayTotInUse  = .T.


      USE ActGLDayTot IN 0

      lGLDayTotInUse = .F.




SCAN &cMsg

      intRows = intRows + 1

      DIMENSION arrTR(intRows,9)   

      arrTR(intRows,1) = ActGLMast.AccountCode

      arrTR(intRows,2) = ActGLMast.AccountName

      arrTR(intRows,3) = ActGLMast.AccountType

      DO CASE

            CASE ActGLMast.CurrBal > 0

                  arrTR(intRows,7) = ActGLMast.CurrBal

                  arrTR(intRows,8) = 0

            CASE ActGLMast.CurrBal < 0

                  arrTR(intRows,7) = 0

                  arrTR(intRows,8) = ActGLMast.CurrBal


                  arrTR(intRows,7) = 0  && YTD Debit

                  arrTR(intRows,8) = 0  && YTD Credit


      SELECT ActGLDayTot

      GO TOP

      *LOCATE FOR ALLTRIM(ActGLDayTot.AccountCode) = ALLTRIM(cAccountCode) AND ActGLDayTot.ValueDate = dTranDate

      LOCATE FOR ActGLDayTot.ValueDate = dTranDate

      IF FOUND()

                  DO CASE

                        CASE ActGLDayTot.Balance > 0

                              arrTR(intRows,5) = ActGLDayTot.Balance

                              arrTR(intRows,6) = 0

                        CASE ActGLDayTot.Balance < 0

                              arrTR(intRows,5) = 0

                              arrTR(intRows,6) = ActGLDayTot.Balance


                              arrTR(intRows,5) = 0

                              arrTR(intRows,6) = 0



            arrTR(intRows,5) = 0    && MTD Debit

            arrTR(intRows,6) = 0    && MTD Credit



intNoOfRows = intRows

* Now close all tables you dont need


      USE IN ActGLMast



      USE IN ActGLDayTot



The PARAMETERS command that begins the method identifies the parameters passed to the class. The program uses a SCAN…ENDSCAN loop to go through the ActGLMast table to isolate all accounts that meet the criteria and then to populate the array with matching data from the ActGlDayTot table. At the end, the program returns .T. if the method completes successfully. You could now run this report with a REPORT FORM command just as we did either from a form or visual FoxPro menu.


Visual FoxPro’s data manipulation language is one of the things that makes Visual FoxPro standout amongst numerous products in its class. This article has demonstrated how the richness of the Visual FoxPro language and development environment allows a developer to compile the data needed for a report at run time and still be able to pretty much control the report generation process. Even though this article has assumed that the programmer is building a ‘pure fox’ application (after all, Visual FoxPro gives you pretty much everything you need to build complete robust data management applications), with a little tuning and changes, you can use this method to derive data from powerful SQL Servers such as ORACLE, Microsoft’s own SQL Server or Advantage Database Server for use within a Visual FoxPro report. If you can imagine it, Visual FoxPro lets you build it.

[i] If you want to be able to use the expression building to select from a list of fields using a field picker, then you may have to type a command in the command window that creates your cursor in advance before proceeding to layout the report designer. If you do this, the fields of the cursor will be available to you from the expression building. For example, you could type the following in the command window:

CREATE CURSOR Testcursor (Field1 c(10) unique,Field2 i)

Once you have done this, you will find the fields of your cursor listed in the fields list on the expression builder, so you can just click the desired field to be added to the report.

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15 Questions to Ask a Grant Writer For Hire

Here are 15 questions to ask a grant professional you are considering for a job:

1) What is your grant writing success rate? The best way to determine a success rate is to divide the number of approved grants by the number of submissions.

2) What are some examples of grants you have received?

3) How much money have you received in grants?

4) What is your primary area of grant writing expertise?

5) What is the main type of funders you have approached? For example, have you mainly approached private corporations and foundations or public government agencies on a federal, state or local level?

6) What has been the main focus of your grants… like education, health, human services, arts and culture, environment?

7) What types of expenses have you gotten funding for… like seed money, curriculum development, and travel?

8) What experience do you have in the area of grant seeking? What experience do you have in how to research and find funders to meet our agency’s needs?

9) What experience do you have in program design and development? What kind of strategies would you use to design and develop programs in our agency? What ideas do you have to get input from stakeholders and build partnerships?

10) What experience do you have in writing proposals? What training or experience do you have in crafting an effective grant application and writing a convincing case for funding? What training or experience do you have in analyzing requests for proposal (RFP’s), including elements of standard proposals (e.g., problem statements, action plans, timelines, evaluation, etc.), and making a persuasive argument?

11) What experience do you have in grant management? What experience do you have in completing reports accurately and timely, ensuring regulatory compliance, and facilitating completions of activities outlined in the grant’s activity timeline and evaluation plan?

12) What is your preferred mode of communication? Find out how they prefer to communicate (i.e., by phone, email, text messaging, instant messaging, social media, etc.).

13) What’s your response rate for emails or phone calls? Find out up front, how quickly they will respond to emails or phone calls (My response rate is typically 20 minutes. However, I mention up front that I have a 24-hour response policy), how often they will update you on status, timelines for completion, and deadlines.

14) How do you address problems that might arise? Asking this question up front will give you an idea about how the candidate will approach solving problems. Ask for a specific example of how they have addressed a problem in the past.

15) What are your expectations?

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Ghostwriter Code of Ethics

Today, there are many ghostwriters writing essays for college students. These college students are trying to take advantage of the fact that a “ghostwriter” is normally a professional writer that writes something and then gives the client credit. Ghostwriters are also taking advantage of this fact and are trying to profit from it. In this article I am calling all ghostwriters to come together and adhere to a new Code of Ethics rule which states that we should never write essays or anything else for a college student. There are many reasons why we should adhere to this rule.

First, I am a former college student and understand the fact that if a ghostwriter writes an essay for a college student, it will not be fair for the other students who actually spend quality time studying and writing the essay. The ghostwriter could also set the grading curve at a much higher level since we are professional writers and most writers, I would hope, have already gone to college.

Second, it should be against the law in the first place for a ghostwriter to write an essay for a college student because that student is in the process of earning a respectable degree and should actually earn it without the help of a professional writer. I do know that most college professors do mention to the students that if they are caught buying an essay from the internet or from a professional writer that they will fail the essay. This should be the case because the essay would not be written from the student’s actual knowledge of the subject.

The two reasons mentioned above are the two main reasons why ghostwriters should never accept jobs from college students who are requesting a paper to be written that is a graded assignment. Those two reasons should be adhered to by ALL ghostwriters because it is ethically wrong, period! A ghostwriter which does adhere to this rule is The Affordable Ghostwriter who can be reached here: Hopefully more ghostwriters will learn and accept the facts and ethics mentioned herein and adhere to them. If you agree, then please do as I am doing by expressing your opinion and let your voice be heard!

© 2009 by American Creations of Maui

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Rabindranath Tagore – My Favourite Author

The first time I had sung the National Anthem composed by Rabindranath Tagore, the rhythm and the tune touched my heart and magnified the love for Bangladesh. I started reading his short stories and poems, which he created for children gave me real pleasure. His power of simplification and showing the beauty of truth within little things for extensive exemplification for which my inquisitiveness feelings make him my favorite author. The Tagore’s were of a cultured and wealthy family. Rabindranath Tagore was born in 7th May 1861 and died in 7th August 1941. His father, Devendranath, was one of the leaders of the Brahma Samaj. The poet’s early life was spent in an atmosphere of religion and arts, literature, music and paintings. As an author, the trend of his life was early contemplated. He was brought up and taught on three languages- Sanskrit, Bengali and English.

Tagore’s literary life outspread over sixty years, and he reminds one of Victor Hugo in the copiousness and variety of his work: over one thousand poems; nearly two dozen plays and play-lets; eight novels; eight or more volumes of short stories; more than two thousands songs, of which he wrote both the words and the music; and a mass of prose on literary, social, religious, political, and other topics. In addition to his English translations of some of his literary works; his paintings; his travels and lecture-tours in Asia, America, and Europe; and his activities as an educationist, as a social and religious reformer, and as a politician- and there we have, judged by quantity alone, the life work of a Nipple. Suffice it to say that his genius was no more than the capacity for taking infinite pains; but to note the element of steel and concrete that went to his making, and thus to dispose of the legend, that has grown in some quarters in recent years, of Tagore the pale-lily poet of ladies’ table.

In 1901 he founded his school, the Santiniketan, at Bolpur as a protest against the existing evil system of education. The school was a great success and transfigured Viswabharati. On revisiting England in 1911 he brought with him the English Gitanjali, and it’s publication in 1912 and the award of the Nobel Prize for literature the following year made him world-famous. This was the first award of that prize to an Asiatic. The rest of Tagore’s life was spent at Santiniketan, except for several travels and lecture-tours in which he carried his message of human unity to all the important countries of Asia, America and Europe.

Tagore was a proud and ardent patriot. His most intense period of political activity was in the years following 1905, when the agitation against the partition of Bengal was at its highest speed. He renounced his knighthood in 1919 as protest against the Amritsar affair in a letter to the Viceroy, which is among the great documents of freedom. His patriotic poems and songs, particularly the latter, have passed into the common heritage of his country; the song “Bharata-bhagya-vidata” is now sung all over India and “Amar sonar Bangla” in Bangladesh as the national anthem. In this respect I would like to discuss a few of his books which have stirred my heart towards having an unbounded pleasure of spiritual as well as real cultural life.


It is a remarkable short story where Tagore has tried to reflect a contrast between the two families comprising of conservatism and modernism. Hoimonti was educated in modern system of education where her father had influenced her by proper knowledge, culture, heritage and means to retaliate the real life situation. But as ill luck would have it, she was married with Opu, a son of conservative family. This family believed in superstitions and social customs. Opu’s father and mother had prejudice, which would influence Hoimonti tremendously. In the last Hoimonti was faded and her father-in-law was looking for another bride for his son.


This story is about a boy who doesn’t have a mother and was brought up by his aunt. He developed the character, which is different from his age group. He has an uncommon fondness towards the plants and trees. Bolai would not tolerate if anybody would weed out any plants and trees. He thought that every plant has a unique life, which is unknown to everybody. He showed all his love and sympathy even for the tree which grew in an unsuitable place. In the last his most favourite tree was cut down when his father took to Shimla for higher studies. Bolai’s aunt was shocked at the demolition of the tree, which she thought was the personification of Bolai.


It is a famous novel created by Tagore. The actress of the story is Labonno and the actor is Amit. The contrast and love affairs of them have been reflected in a significant manner. The book has the greatest literary value in the world. The real love an affair with high world literature has been vividly reflected here where the two craving personalities are eagerest to know each other. They were devoid of greed, jealousy, allusion and bad temperament and they know how to tackle the social confliction and criticism of social critics.


The main characters of this story are a girl named Mini and Rahmat the Kabuliwala. Kabuliwala is from Afghanistan; he sells things from door to door. Once she was introduced to Mini, the talkative girl who was five years old. The man has left his daughter who is of Mini’s age back home. Mini and Kabuliwala developed a very good friendship. Kabuliwala used to bring dry fruits for Mini as present and showed the patience of listening to Mini. They used to tease each other about “going to in-laws house”. For some reason the man has to go to prison for eight years. After coming from jail he wanted to meet Mini. But, at that time Mini’s marriage ceremony was going on. In the past eight years she has forgotten her friend Kabuliwala. She was not friendly like her childhood and was feeling shy seeing him. Kabuliwala could feel the distance the time has passed between them and his daughter.


It is a short story by Rabindranath regarding a postmaster. The postmaster was transferred to a village post office of India. Here he met a girl named Ratan with whom he would always continue conversation hours after hours. One day the postmaster fell ill, Ratan has looked after him and in this way a close relationship was developed between them. When the postmaster was transferred to the town again the girl became shocked and she asked him to take her with him but the postmaster was not in a position to take her. Rattan lived with the sheer pain of the lovely memory; she had spent with the postmaster.

I like Rabindranath’s book because I come to learn many things about the land, people and nature. We learn the problems, religion, culture and heritage of Bengali life. His books sometimes really create thrill, intuition and excitement for the readers by reflecting the social conflicts and contrast between conservative and modern educated people. Furthermore, his poetry ingrained in common life has been vividly contemplated in a significant manner, which stir my heart to a great extent.

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"free Article Writer" Software © – it Works Like Magic!

You probably already know that continuously developing new and original text for your Website is quit frustrating, well the point is that it doesn’t have to be that way – “Free Article Writer” Software can easily do that for you. If you are ‘running out of words’ or having difficulties to construct new sentences while developing fresh-unique-text for your Site or Blog, then you can end that problem once and for all. Looking for tips on how you can easily bring more visitors to your Site(s)? Start reading this quick review.

Quick overview

By using an embedded engine that auto-researches the Internet, “Free Article Writer” Software enables you to type in a keyword(s) and then it starts identifying and storing any piece of information that it finds as highly relevant to your search query. Not only that, it automatically sorts and organizes that collected information into logical subtopic groups. In the next and last part all you have to do is to quickly combine these ready-made text segments into new, original, and impressive article(s).

What are the main benefits?

Let’s find out what is in it for us:

* It enables you to grow your Sites much faster than before.
* Saves you that frustrating manual research for subjects and ideas.
* Focusing on specific niche(s) becomes much easier.
* Get into the business of writing contents for other Webmasters on any subject they want.
* The new contents are completely your own, so there are no plagiarism issues.

Article summary

“Free Article Writer” Software can easily fit to any budget size of home users and small businesses. By the end of this quick review the best advice would be to simply try it as this is the most recommended way that truly enables you to evaluate the advantages mentioned in this review. We could probably come across other great advantages provided by this powerful tool simply because it eliminates many technical difficulties involved with this process.

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Source by Dan Kazinsky

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What Is a Copywriter and What Does a Copywriter Do?

A copywriter is a person tasked to write the text used for advertisements in magazines, newspapers, television, radio and other kinds of media. A copywriter may also be assigned to come up with the words for press releases, informational or promotional pamphlets, and other promotional materials. A copywriter may also be tasked to rewrite or edit existing materials. Thus, a copywriter’s job is a very flexible and potentially exciting career in the wide world of advertising and marketing.

Where Does a Copywriter Work?

A copywriter usually works in advertising firms, retail stores, and marketing companies in a metropolitan area. The working environment of a copywriter is usually found to be quite hectic, which makes creativity under pressure necessary. Advertising is known to be a very fast-paced field where many crises can suddenly occur. A copywriter is usually pressured by short deadline and successive assignments daily. A copywriter is often asked for several revisions at the last minute. This job is therefore not for the weak-hearted or the unengaged.

How Fulfilling Is a Copywriter’s Job?

Novice and assistant copywriters usually start off with an annual salary of about $30,000 to $35,000 working it up to some $40,000 when they become full-pledged. A senior copywriter may eventually earn some $100,000 a year and about $125,000 if he or she becomes promoted as copywriting chief. A copywriter has the potential to later become creative director and earn as much as $200,000 annually.

A copywriter, like most other workers, is usually required to work 40 hours a week, but it is usually expected to have a lot of overtime in this career. Fortunately overtime is compensated accordingly. A copywriter becomes most busy during key times depending on the nature of their firm’s trade – department store copywriters work most during holiday and sale seasons, advertising copywriters work a lot during big advertising campaigns.

Many copywriters today are privileged with profit-sharing schemes afforded by their company. A copywriter also gets the usual benefits such as paid vacations and holidays, pension plans, health care, hospitalization insurance and life insurance. Copywriting can be quite a rewarding job.

How to Become a Copywriter?

A copywriter is expected to be skilled in coming up with great advertising ideas as well as putting them to paper in a very articulate and effective manner. A copywriter should also have a good grasp of layout and typography because visuals are also very important in advertising.

Most advertising agencies require aspiring copywriters to have a solid background in the field, preferably working for at least three years in the business. Copywriters are of course expected to have obtained a college degree, usually in liberal arts, communications, business management, and marketing. A lot of copywriters take college courses that combine creative writing with marketing and this prepares them well for a good copywriting career.

To get hired as a copywriter, one has to be able to combine a solid formal education with an active writing experience. Most copywriters not only had degrees in communications or business, but they actually wrote while studying whether in school publications or community newsletters. A good idea is to present well-written works such as essays and articles.

Are there Opportunities for Growth for a Copywriter?

There is much room for growth for a copywriter. Copywriters working in department stores can become chief of copywriting or fashion coordinator and work their way to become division manager and even advertising chief. Copywriters working in advertising agencies may be promoted as copy supervisor, advancing to copy chief, and then account executive, and ultimately to creative directorship. A copywriter’s job can indeed be quite fulfilling.

In the growing world of business and advertising a copywriter can find a great home with many opportunities for earning and career expansion. Some people undermine the work of copywriters merely because their job seems to be placed at the bottom of the bureaucracy. However a copywriter with the right determination and skill can definitely work his or her way to the top the way their more business-oriented peers do.

Copywriting can be a very fulfilling career for those who have the right skills for the job. If you are full of bright ideas and know how to write well then you might want to try out becoming a copywriter.

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Source by Steven Gerber

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Writers: The Comma

It is said that 90% of all writers use a comma correctly, 75% of the time, but only 1% of the writers use the comma correctly 99% of the time.  Many of us who write for business are in that top 90%.  The comma is important.  Commas let your writings breath. 

They are the main device by which the grouping of words, phrases, and clauses are set up.  Consequently, commas are misused more than all the other marks combined.

There are only four commas, which hardly seem a lot for such a difficult topic.  Never-the-less, it is the four that get us all in trouble.  The four types of commas are Omission, Bracket, Listing, and the Joiner. 

That was simple.  Now that you know their names, you know how to handle each one – right?  Let’s make sure. 

Let’s start with the Omission Comma. 


True to its title, the omission comma replaces a missing word, most often “and.”  The rule is – if you cannot put “and” before the word, then you should not use an Omission comma. 

You can change the above sentence simply by adding a “and” before “tedious lecturer”   If you couldn’t put “and” before the word, then the comma is not needed. 

Example:  By removing one word, we render this sentence incorrect.  “As professors go, old man Jerkins is a boring, uninspired, lecturer who will put you to sleep under two minutes.

“And” cannot be put in front of “lecturer,” therefore the use of the comma is incorrect.  To make the sentence read right, we must put a comma before uninspired (it passes the “and” test) and a comma after “lecturer.”  Example: “As professors go, old man Jerkins is a boring, uninspired lecturer, who will put you to sleep under two minutes.

Joining Comma

The joining comma joins independent clauses.  The rule is each part of the sentence has to be able to stand by itself.  Using the example above, we can remove the comma and rewrite the sentence to read:  “As professors go, old man Jerkins is a boring, uninspired, lecturer.  He will put you to sleep under two minutes.  We had to add the subject “He” in order to link the professor back into the second sentence, but even without it, the assumptive subject would have still been the professor. 

Be careful of joining commas, they tend to make run on sentences, they are hard to control, so that you feel like you are running out of breath when reading, like they will never end, never letting you stop long enough, and take one little breath. 

Whew! Do you see what I mean? There are at least two separate sentences in the previous paragraph.  Where would you place the period and start a new sentence?  You could also use our little friend the listing comma to make the above sentence work.  Let’s try it.

Listing Commas

A listing comma is just as the name implies – it puts things in a series or list.  For example:  The attributes that make Joe Jones a good candidate for this position are punctuality, a stickler for details, professional leadership, a dedicated employee, and a inspiring team leader. 

You can’t make these terms stand alone because the subject gets lost, so a “Joining” comma doesn’t work, and the commas are not “Omission” commas because if you put  “and” in replacement of the commas, then the entire sentence becomes awkward and run on.  Try it. 

Two simple rules for listing commas.  Rule 1: You have an option of placing a comma in front of the last item proceeding the “and” in the last item of a list.  It is an option, and correct either way.  The rule is – don’t let anyone chastise you for doing this – it’s his or her option as well.

Rule 2: Do not place a comma before the first item in the list, or after the last item in the list. 

The Bracket (or parenthetical) Comma

The last in our series is the bracket comma.  Also called the parenthetical comma it does what it says.  It sets off a part of a sentence that contains information that may be nice, but not essential to that sentence.  For example:  In the development process of the widget, which will revolutionize the widget industry, we failed to estimate its greater value to tire manufacturers. 

The Final Word 

As we can see here, the old rule of thumb of using a comma wherever you would take a breath, if you were speaking the sentence, is not entirely accurate.  This rule of thumb does have some merit as a starting point, but it helps to know what type of comma is applicable when editing your work. 

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Source by Gary Clark

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All About Freelance Public Relations Jobs

Public relations is an involved field of work for freelance writers. Freelance public relations usually entails writing reports, designing presentations, putting together ad campaigns, creating press releases, writing speeches, coaching, informing employees/clients/regulatory agencies about what’s going on at the office, and so on.

In short, if you want to freelance as public relations writer, you need a diverse set of skills. This includes exceptional writing ability, a knack for marketing, superior computer skills (with knowledge of presentation and desktop publishing software), and exceptional customer service.

If you don’t have these skills, you can probably outsource some of your work. However, hiring others to do your job for you will seriously dwindle your profits.

Who offers freelance public relations jobs?

Every publicly traded company needs PR people, including many private businesses. Marketing and communications firms are popular examples. In addition, government and non-profit organizations always seek the services of freelance PR pros. Museums, charities, and hospitals are just a few examples that encompass the endless list of organizations needing someone to handle their public relations.

To find public relations jobs, check out employment sites like and Yahoo! HotJobs. It’s also smart to sign up with websites like that specialize in connecting PR jobseekers with employers.

Don’t forget to check out websites like IFreelance and Guru. These freelance job auction sites allow you to bid on projects that suit your timeline, scope of abilities, and desired income level.

How much money can I make in freelance public relations?

That depends on the PR work that you’re doing. Freelance public relations encompass many “sub-jobs,” and consequently, each client will have different tasks that he or she wants you to oversee. A PR client may hire you to do everything from employee newsletters to nationwide marketing campaigns; or the client may hire you to type, copyedit, and proofread press releases. You and your client will have to agree on the list of expectations.

If you’re a jack-of-all-trades public relations writer, then don’t charge less than $40 an hour. If your client wants you to charge by project (which is more common for large PR campaigns), estimate the number of hours you will need and then multiply it by your hourly rate. As your list of happy PR clients grows, you may want to charge more. Many PR freelancers make $150 an hour and up.

In public relations, it is also common to charge by the day. PR professionals usually charge in the range of $300 to $1000 per day or more.

How do I properly respond to a public relations job ad?

Again, it depends on the work the client wants you to do. It also depends on the company it is. If a kids’ soccer league were looking for a PR freelancer, you’d hope to quote them a far smaller fee than you would an oil and gas company!

To ensure you create the best response possible, follow these guidelines:

1. Identify yourself as an extremely capable and professional PR freelancer.

2. Assure the client that you can handle each of the items he or she listed in the ad.

3. Mention how satisfied your previous clients have been with your work.

It’s obviously much easier to get this complex job with prior experience. However, if you don’t have previous PR clients, remember that any job experience with any required job skill is useful. For example, you may have written website content before. It’s not PR experience technically, but it shows you can handle that aspect of the job.

Sample ad

Below is a sample ad for a public relations freelance writer. What would you include in your response?

We are a mid-sized software company that needs a public relations specialist to add energy to our existing ad campaigns. We want to be well positioned within our market to reach out to new customers and generate more sales. You will rewrite our marketing material, design slideshows, and create two press releases per month about our products.

First, let the advertiser know you’re enthusiastic about this job opportunity. The company is looking for someone to reenergize their marketing efforts, so you should convey yourself as an energetic, dynamic person.

Second, address their task list. If you have relevant experience and satisfied past clients, discuss it here. If not, focus on how solid your skills are.

That’s all there is to it! Getting the client excited about your abilities is the key to success in public relations.

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Source by Brian D Scott

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Writing For Textbroker: Is it a Scam?

When starting a freelance writing career online, the beginning of the process can be very confusing. You might spend a few days asking yourself these questions: Which sites are reputable? What sites pay the most? Am I wasting my time?

There are many reputable sites to work for online. Look for sites who ask you to apply and send in a sample of your work. They will usually get back to you in a day or two. If you are approved, be sure to read the FAQ of the site so that you will know the basics and how much you will be getting paid per article. You will also need to note how long your articles need to be and other qualifications that you might need to have.

Sometimes it’s hard to find sites who are reputable and freelancers are always sharing information as to which sites are good and which ones are scams. I have been asked at my website many times over the last few months if was a reputable freelance writing company to work for. Is textbroker a scam? I can answer that question from experience. No, it text broker is not a scam. When you send in your writing sample, you will be given a ranking from 1-5 from the team at textbroker. The lower the ranking, the lower your pay per article will be.

Once you are accepted and ranked, you may log into the site to view available articles that are in your ranking and the rankings below yours. You can choose one article to write and then cannot choose another one until you have submitted the first. The articles are listed by category, so you can see which ones you might be interested in. Once you click on an article, you will get more detailed information from the client, such as which keywords to use and how many words the article needs to be.

Once you submit your article, it is sent to the client for approval. The client may do one of three things. They can reject the article outright. They can email you for a revision. They can accept the article. Once your article has been accepted by the client, you will see the payment show up in your textbroker account.

Textbroker will then pay you by paypal once your account has reached $10.00. This usually does not take very long to achieve. Each article that is accepted is given a ranking by textbroker. Then, your article rankings are averaged and you will be given a new ranking. As your rankings improve, so does your pay scale. Textbroker is not a scam. They pay in a timely manner and there is plenty of work in the assignments area.

If you are looking for other freelance writing sites that will pay you to submit articles, you should visit The Green Ninja at to read about other sites such as eHow, Demand Studios, Bukisa, and more. There is a wealth of information about getting your articles published and putting money in your pocket.

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Source by Jen Brister

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