The One-Sentence Paragraph

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Paragraphs can be written in many ways. In nonfiction documents, for example, a paragraph may first establish context for an idea, provide supporting information, and then conclude with an impact or action statement that leads to the next idea. In fiction or narrative documents, a paragraph may show a single action or provide a character’s immediate response to an experience. Some writers use long paragraphs to fully explore an idea, while others may prefer short, terse paragraphs.

In all cases, however, the purpose of a paragraph is to present one idea to the reader. The complexity of the idea and the reader’s need for explanation determine the length of the paragraph. A careful writer will balance the reader’s needs with his or her style preferences. This brings us to a question I have been asked occasionally. How many sentences should be in a paragraph? The answer I give is based on the “one idea per paragraph” concept: at least one.

If the preceding paragraphs have provided sufficient information for the reader to understand the idea, and if the connections between the ideas are clear, and if the value and implications of the idea will be obvious to the reader, one sentence may be sufficient.

Unlike paragraphs with multiple sentences, a one-sentence paragraph places heavy emphasis on the idea. It is a high-impact tool for telling the reader, “This is very important.” Very few ideas require this level of emphasis. Used sparingly, one-sentence paragraphs can be very effective for pointing out critical ideas or keeping the reader mentally focused on the content.

On the other hand, a document with too many one-sentence paragraphs loses this effect. The writer who uses too many, or uses them too close together, is telling the reader that many of the ideas are very important. As a result, he or she loses the ability to point out specific ideas as being the most important. This is similar to always shouting. If you shout everything you say, no single shouted idea has more emphasis than any other.

Another problem with documents that contain too many one-sentence paragraphs is that they are unpleasant to read. Each one-sentence paragraph creates an emotional impact. The reader will need time to recover, meaning the reader is no longer considering new information as it relates to the high-impact statement. If the effect of the previous emotional impact has not yet “worn off,” adding another impact places emotional stress on the reader’s subconscious. Eventually, the reader will become mentally fatigued, and the entire document will lose value.

In summary, here are three guidelines for using one-sentence paragraphs effectively.

  1. Use them only for stand-alone ideas that do not need explanation.
  2. Use them when you want to create heavy emphasis for an idea.
  3. Use them infrequently.

One last note:
This does not apply to journalistic writing. One-sentence paragraphs are a common style for journalistic writing, especially in print journalism. For all other types of writing, however, these guidelines apply.

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Source by David Bowman

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How Do You Learn Or Train for General Transcription Work?

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How do you learn or train for general transcription?

There is no formal training required for general transcription. You can learn general transcription yourself and practice.

One way to train for general transcription is by transcribing anything you hear. Transcribing regularly will help you build speed and acquire an ear for transcription work. Practicing transcription will also help you become familiar with using transcription playback software. Using a foot pedal allows hands-free typing and improves your speed and efficiency instantly.

Your typing speed and transcription speed will improve with practice. The more you type and transcribe, the faster you’ll get.

Accuracy is important so focus on typing as quickly as possible without errors. You can use free online typing tutorials and typing tests to improve your typing speed and accuracy. Your transcription speed will keep increasinggradually until you reach your ideal speed.

New transcriptionists are often looking for free audio files to practice transcribing.  Using transcription practice files is just one of the many ways for new transcriptionists to practice transcription.  In addition to practice files, there are many other types of audio files you can use to practice transcription skills.

With a little creativity, you’ll find many ways to practice transcription.  You can transcribe your own voicemail messages, answering machine messages and Skype recordings.  You can record and transcribe television programs, TV interviews and radio interviews and conversations.

There are many online sites where you can find different types of audio files you can practice with. You can download and transcribe online seminars, teleseminars and podcasts from the public domain.  You can download podcasts from podcast.com to practice transcription and get familiar with different kinds of accents.

Several web sites provide practice transcription files you can use to practice transcribing.  Some sites provide free practice files while other sites sell practice files. Just do a Google search for “transcription practice tapes.”                                               

The NCH web site provides sample audio files you can use with the popular free Express Scribe transcription playback software. Transcribed PDFs are provided to check your finished transcription against. The NCH sample audio files are legal and medical transcription files but you can use them just as well to practice general transcription. Just don’t worry about the legal and medical terms.

You can download practice transcription files and free Express Scribe transcription software at http://www.nch.com.au/scribe/practice.html.

Before testing for transcription jobs and applying for your first transcription job, practice transcribing anything you hear and make sure that your transcription skills are up to speed.

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Source by Leva Duell

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The Fixation Behavior of an Autistic Child

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Fixation is a common characteristic in the behavior of an autistic child. The child may be fixated on a book, a picture, a person, maps, music, numbers, or a movie. Whatever the fixation, the high functioning autistic child will become a resident expert on the subject. They will memorize and will be able to regurgitate in rote the exact amount of information they are fixated on. They may even to be able to read music aloud by sounding out the notes or something more simplistic, your child may be fixated by a music artist and have all their songs memorized.

Fixations can be a good thing. The old method of taking the fixation away from the child has been replaced with the idea of using the fixation to facilitate learning. If a child is fixated on a certain television cartoon, turn the sound off and let them read through close captioning what is going on. If they all the words to the program they are fixated on, they will soon begin to associate the words with actual audio sound. Not only does this placate the fixation, but it uses the fixation to stimulate learning in a new medium.

A little know fact about communication and fixation was what the autistic child looked at when they fixated. A research study that looked at video tapes of autistic children interacting during play showed that most of the time during verbal communication the child would fixate of objects instead of faces. When the child finally gave the person talking eye contact, the item of fixation was the mouth instead of the eyes. You can use this fact to be conscious of how your mouth moves when you are talking. If you get a positive reaction from a word, it may not be the word that motivates your child; it may be the position in which your mouth was in.

The eye contact problem has been addressed by research and the fixation of the mouth area mystery has been solved. Researchers say that the amygdale is responsible for creating a fear by looking in a person’s eye. Can you imagine not being able to look anybody in the eye because your brain registers their eyes as a threat? This is sad because for years teachers and parents have emphasized eye contact as a behavior change when actually they were making the students learn to deal with their terror.

Remember that fixation may be much more involved than just an over exuberant liking of one thing or another. The fixation may be a bridge between understanding and association. The fixation can be manipulated to a learning experience that not only contains the fixation information but adds everyday concepts to the fixation experience. Use all the senses when presenting something about the fixation and the concepts you want addressed. Let there be smells, visions, sound, and touch. If one sense does not make the connection then maybe the other sense will pick it up.

The fixation is not just misplaced attention to one subject. It is something that they can grasp and of course they are going to like it when they are actually communicating knowledge they are going to be successful at. Their brain has finally found a place of function and normalcy. To stifle their creative and learning experience by taking away their fixation may be a huge mistake. If the fixation is healthy and no a danger to the child, then embrace it and expand on it. The fixation and the concepts you teach in the alignment of that fixation can make your child’s life easier and happier.

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Source by Jonathan Sullivan

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Similarity Between Writing a 5 Paragraph Essay and an Article

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The similarities between a five paragraph essay and an article are quite numerous but for the reason of this discussion just the relevant ones will be picked and discussed. An article is a piece of writing mostly nonfiction about the contemporary happenings in the society. It comes in various sizes of length and is usually for the newspaper, magazine, journals or books of reference.

A five paragraph essay is an essay that has all the ideas written and organized in five paragraphs. The essay is usually a prose and can be descriptive, argumentative, expository, imaginative, or analytical in nature, and usually from a personal view point. The similarities between writing a five paragraph essay and an article is that first an article contains paragraphs and an article may be five paragraphed. This simply means that both kinds of writing have their ideas developed sequentially in paragraphs following a logical sense of development of the idea and topic of discussion.

Another similarity is that both kinds of writings do not have address of both the writer and the person being written to in the case of an article. Since an article is for publication, it is normally assumed that it carries an address of the writer and the publisher, but that is only obtainable in letters. The same applies for an essay. Essays are mainly for students and for academic purposes; it does not require an address of the writer.

In addition to that, there are no salutations in both kinds of writing. There is no need for a “dear sir or ma” in a five paragraph essay nor in an article. The same goes for a complimentary conclusion. Hence the need for a “yours faithfully” is overruled in both kind of writing.

Both kinds of writing could have the same nature depending on the topic of discussion. That is they could both be descriptive, narrative, expository as the case maybe. An article as well as a five paragraph essay would have information to offer the reader, and could criticize an issue or try to persuade the reader with ideas on a particular issue.

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Source by John Halas

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10 Reasons to Hire a Ghost Writer for Your Writing Project

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Ghostwriter’s are paid to write articles, website content, full length fiction and nonfiction books, ebooks, sales copy, press releases and pretty much everything else that can earn you money.

After the job is complete the copyright then passes to the ghostwriter’s client. From that moment on, as far as the world is concerned, the client is the original author of the copy.

10 Reasons to Hire a Ghostwriter

#1 Street Cred

You’ve launched your new website. Now you need to let people know who you are. Hiring a ghostwriter to write informative, intelligent articles under your name will boost your credibility as a business. Suddenly, everyone will want to know who you are, and how they can buy your products/services because you are clearly an authority in your niche market.

#2 I Wish I Had the Time

You have a business to run and honestly, you don’t have time to mess about with words all day long. But you need them, and you need them quick. Whether you’re finishing a book, launching a website or a range of blogs –soon the content will overwhelm you and your business will suffer.

Hire a ghostwriter, and you’ll get high quality copy by your set deadline. This leaves you free to bask in the glow of your success.

#3 Writers Block

Being a professional writer can be difficult, especially when the well of words runs dry. Hand over the novel, ebook or non fiction book that you’ve been sitting on for months to a ghostwriter. They will finish it in the allocated time that you give them, and provide you with insight on what you’ve already done.

Finally, you’ll have your completed book, ready to be sent off to your agent or publisher.

#4 Tone Deaf

Ghostwriters are a versatile bunch. They can be conversational, journalistic, informational and salesy – but most of all they are relevant and sensitive to your unique target market. This means more sales, visits and clicks in the long run.

#5 Wardens of Language

There’s no excuse for poor spelling, grammatical errors and sentences that look like a three year old arranged them with fridge magnets. Bad language skills could tarnish your image forever, and quite frankly your general readership will notice. Ghostwriters are language gymnasts.

The really great ghostwriters will hand you copy that has little or no errors in it at all. That’s what you want for your business.

#6 Published and Aware

The best ghostwriters have been published all over the place, in magazines, as secret book authors and all over the internet. They know things about the publishing industry that you don’t.

They will deliver your book, ebook or article in the right format, error free and ready to publish. You get the benefit of their knowledge on the publishing world, and all the glory. Sounds like a good deal to me.

#7 Money, Honey

A ghostwriter never sees the money behind the money. You get to keep all the wonderful royalties and copyright so that the money keeps flowing into your bank account, years after the work is published.

#8 Down with the Competition

Ghostwriters are naturally competitive, and want their projects to do well long after their client has left with the work. This means that your project will be extra competitive in a highly competitive field.

Take an extra spicy sales letter for example. It will sell thousands of products, because the writer behind the writer found a way to make it unique and appealing.

#9 Research is the Answer

Great ghostwriters are exceptional at gathering resources for your copy. The key to great online and print content is to find unique things to say about your topic, by researching the hell out of it. Ghostwriters always check their facts and are always aware of copyright infringement.

#10 Editors and Proofreaders

A ghostwriter is great with language and as a result they can also use their abilities to refine your existing content – making it more readable, entertaining and informative. Just one ghostwriter can change the way you do business by providing you with world class copy that adds real value to everything that you do.

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Source by Carla Dewing

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The 5 Ws of Newsletter Or Ezine Publishing

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You have a website that sells a product or service. You have decent traffic, but most of the visitors are unique visitors, meaning, they visit once and then leave and possibly forget that your business even exists. One of the single most important things that website owners should do, but all too often do not, is capture the names and email addresses of visitors to their site. Obviously it’s not usually possible to capture the information of every single visitor to your site, but that is really ok, because you don’t want every name. What you do want to capture is the information of individuals who visit your website, are interested in your product or service and either, want to learn more from you, or want to hear about deals or specials you may offer. But how do you get this information? The simple answer is with an ezine or newsletter. To help you decide whether to develop such a tool, here are the 5 Ws of Newsletter or ezine creation:

(1) – Who should publish newsletters? Just about any online business can benefit from distributing a newsletter or ezine. There is no better way to promote your business with little expense than by sending an ezine to your opt-in list.

(2) – What kind of content should my ezine include? The key to any successful ezine is great content. Your readers have subscribed because they have an interest in your industry or area of expertise. The information you provide to them should therefore be relevant and fresh. Topics can include anything from product reviews, industry news, useful resources, tips and tutorials and specials or promotions. The content can be written by you, by a ghostwriter or obtained through some of the hundreds of free article banks on the internet (as long as proper credit is given to the author).

(3) – When do you send a newsletter? This depends on a few things. First, how much time do you have to put into it? If you don’t have much time, you might consider sending a quarterly newsletter to at least get your name into people’s consciousness four times a year. This may however, give readers too much time to forget about you. With quarterly newsletters, there is always the danger that by the time newly subscribed readers receive your newsletter they will have forgotten you. Sending an ezine monthly or bi-monthly provides a higher probability that your readers will remember you, but won’t feel that you are monopolizing their inbox.

(4) – Where do website visitors opt-in? There are various ways that you can have your readers opt-in to your newsletter. Some ezine services provide you with code to add a pop-up window to your site asking visitors to opt-in as they arrive at, or leave your site. Although these methods have proven successful, many fear that their visitors will be annoyed by these tactics and opt for a simple sign-up form. Placing your form so that it is immediately visible to your visitors when they arrive on your site is likely to gain you more subscribers, as will having an opt-in incentive such as a free e-book or a discount on a product or service.

(5) – Why distribute an ezine? An ezine or newsletter is an incredible way to develop a relationship with your website visitors. As you probably already know, repeated exposure to a brand promotes familiarity and usually encourages positive feelings towards that brand. The more familiar consumers are with your product or service, the more likely they are to buy from you rather than from one of your competitors. By sending your readers information regularly, you are establishing yourself as an expert in your field, thus increasing your readers’ receptiveness to your products or services.

For most, the benefits of putting out a newsletter well outweigh the work that you will put into creating it. Every online business should have a means to capture visitor information and ezine or newsletter distribution is a great way to do just that.

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Source by Kelly Sims

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5 Qualities You Need to Possess if You Want Have A Career In Journalism

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Everybody wants to be a journalist. The job can be exciting and in some way glamorous. Depending on where you are assigned, you are given the chance to try out new things and meet different people. Some are given assignments to cover fashion while the others are into health and some about news about the world. But whichever kind of news you are tasked to report about, a career in journalism is never boring.

But though everybody wants to become a journalist, not all can be one. There are people who are cut out to be writers and broadcasters. Here are some of the qualities that you need to have if you want to be one:

1. A nose for the news

Writers and journalists are curious people. They love to investigate and ask questions. They are the kind of people who would go to a scene of an accident and just ask people what happened. These are not the ones who will just sit by their cars and wait for the traffic to clear up. They will get out and find out what is happening to the world. This is why journalists and writers have a nose for the news. They look at things and see something new from it.

2. Word-y people

Whether they are on print or in broadcast, these people are in love with words. They love to talk, to interview people around them and compose reports and essays. Even those in broadcast news are also basically writing. Some even have outlines before they go live. These people’s world revolves around words.

3. Presence

To become successful in the business, you need to have a presence. In writing, you need to be able to establish your own style and a specialization. Not only should you have a perfect grammar but you should also have a style that calls out to people or makes them interested. There is a certain presence that can be found in an article or in certain style of writing. The same goes with broadcasters. Often, those who are generally attractive and have an overall pleasant appearance are hired as broadcasters. They have a great presence on television.

4. Skill

You don’t just write anything you want or say anything you want if you are a journalist. True blue journalists are respected. Their every word are followed on by people and everything they say is like bible. In fact, journalists are often said to be the opinion-makers of the world. They decide what is hip and what is not. They give you advice and say what you should do and should not do. With this, you need to have the skill to do this. Skill comes in the way you fashion your words to make a story and in how you gather the facts and make a story that is relevant to the times and interesting to all people.

5. Integrity

This is perhaps one of the most important qualities that people in the journalism career needs to have. Because these people are basically the opinion-makers of the world, they have enormous power and hold over other industries and business. Some can use this power that they have inappropriately and even illegally. For people to really trust what you say, you need to first become trustworthy.

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Source by Sutiyo Na

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HR KPI for News and Mass Media

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Without any doubt we are living in the age of information. News is all around us. Every morning people read newspapers and visit web pages of most popular online news agencies. There is a very high competition in mass media business. Everyone tries to be the first to deliver news to people. This contributes to popularity of periodicals, newspapers, magazines and online media. The more people are reading newspaper the more they charge for advertising, and in fact this is how modern mass media survive. Mass media sell news which customers buy, but they make most of the profits through advertising. That’s why every newspaper or magazine should spend money in a very reasonable and economic way. This especially concerns human resource departments of major news agencies. HR department does not produce anything, but only organizes work of personnel in an efficient way. If human resource managers failed to reach their goals the company may suffer sufficient losses. In fact, human resource department is one of the most important and mass media. What is a newspaper? These are journalists, reporters and editors. If a newspaper failed to be the best and to have its regular target audience it won’t survive. That’s why it is very important to hire the best professionals in mass media industry and create suitable working conditions for them. At the same time, human resource department must make sure that every dollar is spent efficiently.

For this reason evaluation of HR performance in mass media is an important element business management system and strategic goals implementation plan. The more efficiently personnel works, the better are the results and potential revenues. Balanced Scorecard is highly recommended to be used for performance evaluation purposes in mass media. It will not only measure current performance but also indicate progress of human resource department in terms of implementation of strategic goals. Evaluation process is triggered by key performance indicators which show company progress of regress against set goals and objectives. It should be mentioned that key performance indicators differ from industry to industry and mass media is not an exception here. Let’s review several key performance indicators characteristic of mass media HR BSC.

As known, many journalists are working part time or teleworking. This saves company money and enabled top management and human resource department to offer better salaries to such journalists and reporters. Managers satisfaction with teleworking is one of the widely used indicators in human resource evaluation in mass media. Indeed, is not easy to work if an employee as far away but not in the office. If managers are not happy with such type a work it wouldn’t be reasonable to expect great outcomes. That’s why it is important to measure managers satisfaction with teleworking. On the other hand, there are journalists who was still working and their satisfaction rate have to be assessed as well. If both parties are happy with cooperation, both managers and employees will show their top performance. It is also important to evaluate such a key performance indicator as average travel costs per employee since journalists are traveling a lot.

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Source by Sam Miller

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Populating Visual FoxPro Reports with data on the Fly

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Abstract:

Visual FoxPro’s report writer is a powerful full-featured report writer that provides all the tools you need to create and ship compelling reports with your application. On Most occasions, you can create Visual FoxPro reports based only on data that already exists (e.g. an existing table, query or view). However, imagine that the data you need to populate your report with does not exist as a table that can be readily added to your report’s data environment nor does it exist as a set of tables upon which you can execute a straight-forward SQL Query or view! This article describes how you can populate a Visual FoxPro report at run time by collecting report criteria from users, deriving the data from your tables based on that criteria, creating a cursor and then populating the cursor with the derived data all at run time.

Who should read this article?

This article assumes some familiarity with building and developing applications with Microsoft Visual FoxPro 9

Introduction:

One of the key benefits of using Visual FoxPro as your primary development tool is that it provides all of the tools you need to build powerful, compelling full-featured applications that are fast and feature rich!

One of the features of Visual FoxPro that makes this possible is the newly revamped report writer that ships with Visual FoxPro 9! Because of the need to provide or make data available for your report or label before you print it, the Report Writer provides a variety of ways to make data easily available for your report.

One method of making data available for your report and incidentally the most often used is to write a report that is always based on the same data sources. This method would actually require you to add tables or views to the data environment of a report or to use a DO <query> command in the Init event of the report’s data environment. Alternatively, you could execute a query by creating an executing an SQL Statement in the Init event of the report’s data environment.

A second method is when you need to create a report that utilizes separate sets of data sources for the report. In this case, you would dynamically open those data sources at run time by using a USE <table>, USE <view>, DO <query> or SQL SELECT statement to the click event of a button or other code that will run before you issue a REPORT or LABEL command.

However, what happens when the data for your report is not in a table that can be dynamically queried with a SELECT SQL statement nor is it in a form that you can simply open with a USE command! The Richness of the Visual FoxPro programming language allows you to easily solve this problem as this article will demonstrate. To demonstrate the concept being discussed, imagine that you need to print or generate the Income and Expense Report for your company as at a given day! This would mean that you need to keep a daily running balance of each account in your General Ledger chart of accounts in a table that we shall perhaps call ActGLDayTot. The sections that follow will describe how to create these tables and their structure as well as the code that generates the report.

Printing Reports in Visual FoxPro

As already noted, you need to make data available for a report before you proceed to print the report. To print a report in Visual FoxPro, you will need to issue the REPORT FORM <reportname> command. For the full syntax of the REPORT FORM command, see your Visual FoxPro 9 online help documentation.

If you issue the REPORT FORM command with no tables in the data environment and no data sources open in the data environment of the report, the report simply appears to flash and then close again! To avoid this situation, you will either need to add data to the data environment or use the Init event of the data environment to make data available within the data environment prior to printing. When the data does not already exist in a query or in a form that can be directly queried, what will you do?

Making Data Available on the Fly

Because data must be first made available prior to running a report, you will need to issue an SQL SELECT statement or open a table at least in the Init event of the Data Environment of the report. However, if your data does not exist in a form in which you can easily build a view over it or a query over it and if it does not exist in a form in which it can be added as a table then neither of the methods discussed so far will yield the desired results!

This means that you must find a new way of making the data available to your program. A closer examination of how you would use the SQL SELECT statement provides an insight into how you could do this. The general form of the syntax of the SQL SELECT Statement we want to consider is as follows:

 

SELECT [ALL | DISTINCT] [TOP nExpr [PERCENT]] Select_List_Item [, …]

   FROM [FORCE] Table_List_Item [, …]

   [WHERE JoinCondition | FilterCondition [AND | OR JoinCondition | FilterCondition] …]

   [INTO StorageDestination | TO DisplayDestination]

This form of the syntax indicates that the SQL SELECT statement creates a query and then fetches the required information from the table into a storage destination most usually, a cursor (temporary table), table or array. The cursor representing storage destination is then used as the source of data for the report. Based on this actuality, we can deduce that our report would run if we created a cursor object using the CREATE CURSOR or a temporary table using CREATE TABLE in the Init event of the data environment. This would make data available to the report and would thus prevent the report from again closing immediately upon being opened.

How would this actually work in practice?

1.       Create your Report: First off, you would have to create a report a report in the Report Designer. You can do this by choosing the Reports Node in the Project Manager and then choosing the New button. When the New Report dialog box displays, you would then choose New Report. Visual FoxPro would then create a new blank report named Report1 and open it in the Report Designer

2.       Layout your Report: Now that the report designer is open, you can start laying out your report. Usually, you would do this by dragging fields from the data environment unto the report canvas. But in this case, you have no data in the data environment so you must set the properties of the report manually. You must therefore display the Reports Controls Toolbar by choosing Reports Control Toolbar from the View main menu. Once the toolbar displays, you can layout your report surface by performing the following action:

a.      Select a control from the toolbox to be placed on your report. If you select a control such as a text box control and then click on the detail band of the report, Visual FoxPro automatically opens the Field Properties dialog box so you can set not only the source of data for the field but also other characteristics of the field.

b.      In the Expression box on the General tabbed page, enter the expression that will server as a source of data for the report. You will enter it in the format cursorname.fieldname where Cursorname will represent the name of the cursor that you will create (of course you have not created it yet otherwise you would simply have chosen the … button to allow you select it from the expression builder[i]). If you click a control such as a Label control, place it anywhere on the report and then type where the Insertion point appears to add a descriptive label. For example, click a label control on the report and then add a descriptive label for each text box in the Page header. You can add descriptions such as Field One and Field Two. You can add a report title (e.g. Test Report) by clicking on the Label control, and then clicking at the appropriate position on the Report Header. To set styles and font sizes for your captions, right-click the appropriate caption, choose Properties and then choose the Style tabbed page. In the Style tabbed page, you can make the appropriate settings under the Font box or make any other settings as necessary. Remember to save your work as you go along.

c.       Now that you have gotten fields onto your report, you can apply the usual formatting to the report such as calculated fields, lines, etc

3.       Set Properties for the Data Environment: You will still want to prevent your report from automatically shutting down when you try to run it so you must set properties for the data environment as follows:

a.      Right-click your report and then choose the Data Environment menu command from the shortcut menu that displays. The Data Environment – Report Designer opens. It is empty, showing that no data sources have been added to it.

b.      Right-Click inside the Data Environment and then choose the Properties menu command to display the properties sheet for the Data Environment.

c.       Set the AutoOpenTables property to false. When you set this property to false, the report does not attempt to open the tables or views in the data environment upon running of the report. If this were to happen, the report would simply find that the data environment did not contain any data and then the report would close abruptly. You are now ready to add code for the report as described in the next step (step 4 – Writing code to make data available).

4.       Write Code to make Data Available: Remember that the data is to be fetched or made available only at run time. So you must now write the code that will make this data available for your report. You will do this in the Init event of the data environment by writing code such as:

a.      Locate the Init event of the data environment in the properties sheet and then double-click it to open the code window.

b.      In the code window, type the code that creates your cursor by using the CREATE CURSOR command and also write code to add several records to the cursor by using the APPEND command. This code could look as follows:

CREATE CURSOR Testcursor (Field1 c(10) unique,Field2 i)

APPEND BLANK

REPLACE TestCursor.Field1 WITH “TEST”

REPLACE TestCursor.Field2 WITH 50

APPEND BLANK

REPLACE TestCursor.Field1 WITH “TEST2”

REPLACE TestCursor.Field2 WITH 100

APPEND BLANK

REPLACE TestCursor.Field1 WITH “TEST3”

REPLACE TestCursor.Field2 WITH 150

 

c.       Close the code window and close the data environment designer

d.      Quickly test your report by choosing the Print Preview button on the toolbar. The report should open in Print Preview mode.

5.       Save and Run your Report: Now that you have created your report and generated data at run time, you will need to save the report and then to run it. You can test whether your report will run by performing the following action:

a.      Choose the Save button on the toolbar to ensure that you have saved your report.

b.      Close the report by choosing the Close button. The report appears under the Reports node in the Project Manager.

c.       To run this report, select the report (Report1) in the project manager and then choose the Preview button. The report opens in print preview mode.

6.       Running Your Report Through the User Interface: You would typically make your report available to the users of your application through the application user interface. For example, you may provide a form through which users can select your report and then press either a preview or a print button. To do this, you will have to use the REPORT FORM command to run the report programmatically. If you want your report to be available through the application user interface, you will have to perform the following action:

a.      Select the Forms node on the Documents tabbed page of the Visual FoxPro project manager and then choose the New button. The New Form dialog box displays.

b.      Choose the New Form button. Visual FoxPro creates a new form named Form1 and opens it in the Form Designer.

c.       Display the Forms Control Toolbox if it is not already displayed by choosing the Form Controls Toolbar menu on the view menu.

d.      Select the Command Button control on the Forms Control Toolbox and then click on the form. Visual FoxPro will create a new command button called Command1.

e.       Double-Click Command1 button to display the Code window for its Click event.

f.        You can now enter the following code:

REPORT FORM Report4.frx NOCONSOLE PREVIEW

 

g.      Click the Save button on the button bar to save the form you have created.

h.      Run the form by either pressing Ctrl + E or by choosing the Run toolbar button on the toolbar. The form runs.

i.         Now click the command button to run the report. The report appears in print preview window.

Applying the concept to a Real Life Situation

The example already illustrated has been kept deliberately simple. Now, this must be applied in a real-life situation. In the example shown, the cursor is populated by issuing APPEND BLANK commands. In a real-life application however, it may be possible that your data may already exist, needing only to be read back and re-arranged into a format that your report can print. Lets illustrate this by building a Trial Balance Report as at a given day (Trial balances are usually printed as at a given period end date).

To be able to print such a trail balance, we would have to know the balance of an account as at a given day. Lets now accept that such data is stored day-by-day as transactions are passed in a table called ActGLDayTot and this table could be created with the following SQL Statement:

CREATE TABLE ActGLDayTot(BatchNo c(20) PRIMARY KEY,AccountCode c(15),;

ValueDate D,CurrYear i,NextYear i,PeriodNumb i,MonthNumb i,Debitamt Y,;

CreditAmt Y,Balance Y)

For each account in the General Ledger Master file, we want to obtain the account’s balances as at the specified day so that we will be able to build the trial balance. Now imagine that your General Ledger Master table could be created with the following SQL Statement:

CREATE TABLE ActGLMast(AccountCode c(15) PRIMARY KEY,AccountName c(50),;

AccountType c(40),CurrBal Y)

The following code is placed in the Init Event of the data environment of our report:

* This Code Constructs the cursor used in the Report

LOCAL dValueDate AS Date,cBranchCode aS Character,intNoOfRows as Integer,oDT as Object ,lAnswer as Logical

DIMENSION arrTR(1,9)

STORE “” TO cBranchCode

STORE ({  /  /    }) TO dValueDate

STORE 0 TO intNoOfRows

* 1) Open the form and obtain the parameters

DO FORM frmMgtTBalByDate.Scx LINKED

dValueDate = frmMgtTBalByDate.txtValueDate.Value

cBranchCode = frmMgtTBalByDate.txtBranchCode.Value

frmMgtTBalbyDate.RELEASE

*OPENTABLES()

oDT = CREATEOBJECT(‘ActGLDayTot’)

lAnswer  = oDT.GetTransByDate(dValueDate,cBranchCode,arrTR,intNoOfRows,chrProgTitle)

CREATE CURSOR MgtTBalByDate (AccountCode c(20),AccountName c(50),AccountType c(50),TBalDate D,MTDDebit Y,MTDCredit Y,YTDDebit Y,YTDCredit Y,UserName C(10))

SELECT MgtTBalByDate

APPEND FROM ARRAY arrTR

This.OpenTables()

In the code above memory variables are declared that will be used either to hold the user’s report criteria or to store and transport data. The DIMENSION command creates an array that will be used to return data from a Data Aware Class that encapsulates the functionality of the ActGLDayTot table. Another thing to note is how we have allowed users to specify the data to be included in the report by entering the specified date for which they want a trial balance. To collect this information from the users, the line DO FORM frmMgtTBalByDate.Scx runs the report parameter form so users can enter criteria. When  the user clicks the Ok button in that form, a THISFORM.Hide command temporarily hides the form from the user while the lines immediately following the DO FORM command collect the information on the form. The line frmMgtTBalByDate.RELEASE then removes the form from memory.

Next, the line oDT = CREATEOBJECT (‘ActGLDayTot’) creates an instance of the class ActGLDayTot and stores a reference to it in the object variable oDT. The line lAnswer = GetTransByDate… calls the method in the class to return the specific data we want, passing the necessary parameters collected form the user along with the array that will be used to store and transport the data back to our report.

As we did earlier, we then use a CREATE CURSOR MgtTBalByDate command to create a cursor with the necessary fields. The line APPEND FROM ARRAY arrTR populates the table. The report is then made to recognize this cursor in its data environment with the line THIS.OpenTables().

By separating the code that does the collection and processing of information from the Report’s own Init event, we are able to make this code available always form multiple locations because it is contained in a data aware class. The code contained within the GetTransByDate method of the ActGLDayTot class is as follows:

* Obtain Transaction By Date

PARAMETERS dTranDate,cBranchCode,arrTR,intNoOfRows,chrProgTitle

LOCAL cMsg AS Character,intRows AS Integer,lGLMastInUse AS Logical

LOCAL lGLDayTotInUse as Logical

* Initialize your variables to the correct types to avoid any errors

STORE “” TO cMsg

STORE 0 TO intRows

IF TYPE(‘dTranDate’) <> ‘D’

      cMsg = “You must enter transaction date!”

      MESSAGEBOX(cMsg,48,chrProgTitle)

      RETURN .F.

ENDIF

IF TYPE(‘intNoOfRows’) <> “N”

      RETURN .F.

ENDIF

IF TYPE(‘arrTR’,1) <> “A”

      cMsg = “Array of Transactions not found!”

      MESSAGEBOX(cMsg,48,chrProgTitle)

      RETURN .F.

ENDIF

IF TYPE(‘cBranchCode’) <> “C”

      cMsg = “ALL”

ELSE

      cMsg = ” FOR BranchCode = ‘” + cBranchCode + “‘”

ENDIF

IF USED(‘ActGLMast’)

      lGLMastInUse = .T.

ELSE

      USE ActGLMast IN 0

      lGLMastInUse = .F.

ENDIF

SELECT ActGLMast

GO TOP

IF USED(‘ActGLDayTot’)

      lGLDayTotInUse  = .T.

ELSE

      USE ActGLDayTot IN 0

      lGLDayTotInUse = .F.

ENDIF

SELECT ActGLMast

GO TOP

SCAN &cMsg

      intRows = intRows + 1

      DIMENSION arrTR(intRows,9)   

      arrTR(intRows,1) = ActGLMast.AccountCode

      arrTR(intRows,2) = ActGLMast.AccountName

      arrTR(intRows,3) = ActGLMast.AccountType

      DO CASE

            CASE ActGLMast.CurrBal > 0

                  arrTR(intRows,7) = ActGLMast.CurrBal

                  arrTR(intRows,8) = 0

            CASE ActGLMast.CurrBal < 0

                  arrTR(intRows,7) = 0

                  arrTR(intRows,8) = ActGLMast.CurrBal

            OTHERWISE

                  arrTR(intRows,7) = 0  && YTD Debit

                  arrTR(intRows,8) = 0  && YTD Credit

      ENDCASE

      SELECT ActGLDayTot

      GO TOP

      *LOCATE FOR ALLTRIM(ActGLDayTot.AccountCode) = ALLTRIM(cAccountCode) AND ActGLDayTot.ValueDate = dTranDate

      LOCATE FOR ActGLDayTot.ValueDate = dTranDate

      IF FOUND()

                  DO CASE

                        CASE ActGLDayTot.Balance > 0

                              arrTR(intRows,5) = ActGLDayTot.Balance

                              arrTR(intRows,6) = 0

                        CASE ActGLDayTot.Balance < 0

                              arrTR(intRows,5) = 0

                              arrTR(intRows,6) = ActGLDayTot.Balance

                        OTHERWISE

                              arrTR(intRows,5) = 0

                              arrTR(intRows,6) = 0

                  ENDCASE

      ELSE

            arrTR(intRows,5) = 0    && MTD Debit

            arrTR(intRows,6) = 0    && MTD Credit

      ENDIF

ENDSCAN

intNoOfRows = intRows

* Now close all tables you dont need

IF NOT lGLMastInUse

      USE IN ActGLMast

ENDIF

IF NOT lGLDayTotInUse

      USE IN ActGLDayTot

ENDIF

RETURN .T.

The PARAMETERS command that begins the method identifies the parameters passed to the class. The program uses a SCAN…ENDSCAN loop to go through the ActGLMast table to isolate all accounts that meet the criteria and then to populate the array with matching data from the ActGlDayTot table. At the end, the program returns .T. if the method completes successfully. You could now run this report with a REPORT FORM command just as we did either from a form or visual FoxPro menu.

Conclusion

Visual FoxPro’s data manipulation language is one of the things that makes Visual FoxPro standout amongst numerous products in its class. This article has demonstrated how the richness of the Visual FoxPro language and development environment allows a developer to compile the data needed for a report at run time and still be able to pretty much control the report generation process. Even though this article has assumed that the programmer is building a ‘pure fox’ application (after all, Visual FoxPro gives you pretty much everything you need to build complete robust data management applications), with a little tuning and changes, you can use this method to derive data from powerful SQL Servers such as ORACLE, Microsoft’s own SQL Server or Advantage Database Server for use within a Visual FoxPro report. If you can imagine it, Visual FoxPro lets you build it.

[i] If you want to be able to use the expression building to select from a list of fields using a field picker, then you may have to type a command in the command window that creates your cursor in advance before proceeding to layout the report designer. If you do this, the fields of the cursor will be available to you from the expression building. For example, you could type the following in the command window:

CREATE CURSOR Testcursor (Field1 c(10) unique,Field2 i)

Once you have done this, you will find the fields of your cursor listed in the fields list on the expression builder, so you can just click the desired field to be added to the report.

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15 Questions to Ask a Grant Writer For Hire

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Here are 15 questions to ask a grant professional you are considering for a job:

1) What is your grant writing success rate? The best way to determine a success rate is to divide the number of approved grants by the number of submissions.

2) What are some examples of grants you have received?

3) How much money have you received in grants?

4) What is your primary area of grant writing expertise?

5) What is the main type of funders you have approached? For example, have you mainly approached private corporations and foundations or public government agencies on a federal, state or local level?

6) What has been the main focus of your grants… like education, health, human services, arts and culture, environment?

7) What types of expenses have you gotten funding for… like seed money, curriculum development, and travel?

8) What experience do you have in the area of grant seeking? What experience do you have in how to research and find funders to meet our agency’s needs?

9) What experience do you have in program design and development? What kind of strategies would you use to design and develop programs in our agency? What ideas do you have to get input from stakeholders and build partnerships?

10) What experience do you have in writing proposals? What training or experience do you have in crafting an effective grant application and writing a convincing case for funding? What training or experience do you have in analyzing requests for proposal (RFP’s), including elements of standard proposals (e.g., problem statements, action plans, timelines, evaluation, etc.), and making a persuasive argument?

11) What experience do you have in grant management? What experience do you have in completing reports accurately and timely, ensuring regulatory compliance, and facilitating completions of activities outlined in the grant’s activity timeline and evaluation plan?

12) What is your preferred mode of communication? Find out how they prefer to communicate (i.e., by phone, email, text messaging, instant messaging, social media, etc.).

13) What’s your response rate for emails or phone calls? Find out up front, how quickly they will respond to emails or phone calls (My response rate is typically 20 minutes. However, I mention up front that I have a 24-hour response policy), how often they will update you on status, timelines for completion, and deadlines.

14) How do you address problems that might arise? Asking this question up front will give you an idea about how the candidate will approach solving problems. Ask for a specific example of how they have addressed a problem in the past.

15) What are your expectations?

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Source by Phil Johncock

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

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