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LIZ PURCELL - Page 4 of 74 - freelance writer with a Bachelor of Arts in English from San Francisco State University

The History Of Fountain Pens Part One-The Evolution Of The Pen-From Stone To Feather

The first primitive type of paper were clay tablets that were engraved with the help of a straw, the forerunner of the pen, cut diagonally in such a way to leave a mark on the soft, wet surface of the clay that in a second phase would then be dried so that the lines previously engraved would become imprinted.

Overlooking this interesting part of our past, the true history of the pen begins with the invention of the paper made from papyrus thanks to the skilled Egyptian people. This introduction generated a significant change which was dictated from the intrinsic characteristics of the papyrus paper that demanded ink in order to leave legible marks, and lines. The Egyptian scribes learned to fabricate red and black ink by mixing soot and oxidized iron with water and glue. In order to write with this tenacious, yet elementary ink, the scribe would submerge the point of a reed that by capillary action was able to absorb a small quantity of ink, enough to allow several characters to be written. This action was then repeated numerous times until the scribe completed his work: a task that followed writing through history until the end of the 19th century.

The evolution of the pen was a direct result of the development of the accessories of writing: from utilizing papyrus to parchment, and finally to the paper that we are familiar with today.

The first writing instrument with a point similar to a nib, made from a papyrus stem, was created during the antique Greek civilization. This pen with a nib was constructed by first drying a papyrus stem and then cutting it on one side in such a way that the point (a flute’s mouth) results split in two from one opening so that the pen obtained had a better result in respect to that of the reed used by the Egyptians, even though it’s correct use required much practice with the instrument.

With the introduction of parchment paper, the goose feather pen surpassed that of the reed (straw) given it’s strength and flexibility. From the 16th century, this kind of writing instrument was commonly used thanks also to the introduction of paper. The feather that became individualized as the most suitable for writing was the most external one of the right wing of the bird, that is then naturally turned to embrace the hand of who holds it. The process of making the goose feather pen that was introduced by the Dutch was composed of two phases: during the first phase, the feather was buried for a short time under a layer of fine and very warm sand in order to dry it’s inner and external membrane; and then, it was immersed in a boiling solution of alum or nitric acid to strengthen the feather for future use.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

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Source by Simone Ficozzi

How to Make Money Fast, Ghost Writing Articles

Whenever making money from article writing is discussed, the first way that everyone thinks about is ghost writing.

This means writing articles for other people that they can use however they want and even put their own name to them as the author.

Ghost writers only get paid once for each article they write, but because there is a constant demand for article writers, it’s possible to earn a good living this way.

But as you can imagine, in this profession, time really is money because you need to produce as many articles as possible in the shortest time possible. If you can only write one article an hour, you won’t earn as much money as someone who can write 3 or 4 article an hour, if you get paid the same amount per article.

Clients looking for article writers usually only want short articles on a fast turn around and they don’t want to pay a lot of them. This is why you need to be able to write articles quickly.

Ideally, you need to aim at completing an article, from research to proof reading, in 15 minutes flat. This means you can produce 4 completed articles every hour.

If you write full-time, this can produce quite a good income and as you continue to work, your process of writing will become easier and faster and you may end up writing as many as 7 or 8 articles an hour.

I have found that I can take one article idea and write it out 7 different ways which has really speeded up my article writing output because I spend less time researching because I only have to do it once to produce 7 articles.

But when you first begin, 15 minutes isn’t long to write an article, so you need to practice.

But within a week you’ll find it easy to write 4 articles an hour, including the research and proof reading.

To do that, you need to be focused and only allow a minute or 2 for research and proof reading, and no more than 10 minutes for writing.

Time is money so you don’t have time to procrastinate or criticise your own writing. Working to such tight time restrictions can really help with that because it leaves you no time to do anything except what you’re supposed to be doing.

And if you’re producing 4 articles an hour, working 5 hours a day, 5 days a week, that’s 100 articles a week.

Which makes it easy to see how writing faster can help to increase your income from ghost writing articles.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg



Source by Ruth Barringham

Rap Songwriting Forum

When it comes to a rap songwriting forum, there is no better place to find the information that you need in order to write a rap song. Forums offer advice and tips from many people that are also involved in the rap music field and the majority of them know what they are talking about. You can learn how to rhyme words that are commonly used in rap songs and also the type of lyrics that you typically need in a rap song.

Additionally, in a rap songwriting forum, you can find many producers that are looking for people to write songs or rap skits for them. The forums can offer a great opportunity to hook up with a producer that could take you to the top of your music career. On the other hand, if you are looking for a rapper, a rap songwriting forum is a good way to discover new and fresh talent.

When looking for a forum, you will notice that there are many available over the Internet. You can look them up in the search engine and you will get many results. The best forums are the more popular ones that are listed at the top of the search engine results. Most forums will allow anyone to sign up and it is typically free though, some will require a special permission or invite in order to join the rap songwriting forum.

If you are a songwriter or a producer, it is important to have a network and people that you can rely on for support in order to get your career off the ground because there are many people in this world that are trying to get into the rap music field. The more people you know, the better off you will be. You never know who you will meet that might know someone very high up and can get you in the right door. However done, networking is important in the music field and a rap songwriting forum can be the perfect opportunity to meet some new people in the field in order to get your career going.

A rap songwriting forum is a great way to get feedback and ideas for your rap songs. In addition or as a supplement to rap songwriting forums, you can work with rap ghostwriters and editors. Ghostwriters can write you an original and new song or edit and rewrite one of your songs.

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Source by John Halas

Newspapers – The Vital Part of Journalism

Newspapers, in the beginning, started as a journal. Today, newspapers have become an essential part of human life. The profession which involved the creation of newspapers is today called as journalism. A newspaper is a printed media which publishes information on the hot sensational topics and breaking news from all over the world. It connects the people worldwide and keeps us well informed. From daily life tragedies to sports, politics, entertainments, advertisements, etc., a newspaper has all in it.

People should make a habit of reading newspapers every day. Newspapers also have some interesting sections for children like solving puzzles, sudoku, and many other interesting stories and GK contents. Reading a newspaper is fun as it refreshes your mood. One can improve his or her vocabulary in the language in which it is printed. Newspapers are not limited to any languages, and I think that is the best part of it. Nowadays, newspapers are not only available in print but are also published online in the form of news websites. Every journalism organisations have their own printed publication as well as news websites. Today, in this modern world, newspapers are playing an important role in the exercise of freedom of expression.

The national daily that I read every day is “The Hitavada”. It is one of the best and top selling newspaper in my city. Unlike every other newspaper like “The Times of India”, “The Hindu”, “The Hindustan Times” and to name a few which is available all over India, the Hitavada is distributed in only four selected cities. And they are Nagpur, Raipur, Jabalpur and Bhopal. It is divided into two sections- “The Hitavada” which keeps you informed about the worldwide events and news, and “The City Line” which keeps you well updated with the city whereabouts and happenings. An additional segment is printed on every Sunday called as the “Insight” which carries various pieces of stuff like articles on social topics, poems, health and fitness, biographies, feng shui facts, astrology and several other interesting sections including articles on different holiday destinations and places to visit in India.

On a concluding note, I would like to highlight that reading of a newspaper is of utmost importance for every individual since it not only broadens our views and aspects about life but also keeps us connected to the society. Newspaper, being a highly organised industry today, it is one of the cheapest and powerful weapons in the last analysis.

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Source by Sujish Kandampully

Dealing With Writer’s Block

If you’re a writer, you have, at one time or another, suffered from writer’s block. There is nothing quite as frustrating for a writer as sitting down to an empty computer screen – or blank piece of paper, if you are analog – and the words simply will not come. No matter how much you tell yourself that it will pass, or remember the old adage that “only writer’s get writer’s block” in an attempt to cheer yourself up, grappling with writer’s block can range from a minor irritation to a horrifying malady that stretches on for days, months, even years.

There is no surefire way to overcome writer’s block, no hard and fast rules that will combat the hopeless feeling you get when in the grip of a dry spell that you fear will never end. Sometimes, no matter what you do and no matter how hard you try, you just have to endure the pain and console yourself with the knowledge that this too shall pass. However, there are things you can try to break out of your rut, rather than placidly waiting for the block to resolve itself.

• Brainstorm. This is perhaps the most basic – and popular – method writers try to get their creative juices flowing. Sit down with a notepad – or open up your word processing program – and write down whatever comes to mind, whether you think it is a viable idea or not. You are not trying to rate your ideas right now, just generate them. If nothing is coming to you, switch to doing something else not writing related, but keep your notepad close at hand, and write down any ideas that pop into your head. Later on you can go back and go over the list, throwing out those ideas that aren’t worth pursuing.

• Browse the Web. The internet is home to a wealth of writing ideas. Hit up your favorite search engine and type in a word or phrase and see where it takes you. For me, news websites are a good place to go for story ideas, as there are unique and interesting things happening in the world every day. Even your friends and family can inspire – check out their Facebook or Twitter accounts and see what they are talking about.

• Take a break. Sometimes you just need to get away from your writing desk when inspiration isn’t forthcoming. Take a walk, ride your bike, or go for a drive, anything to get away from the blank page. You may find ideas coming to you while doing so – if not, some time away, not waiting for inspiration to strike, can do a world of good.

• Just write. Get rid of that blank page any way you can. Start writing with no objective in mind. Stream of consciousness is always popular, even if you are only writing about how you are feeling about not being able to write. I like to find an object in my office, be it a piece of furniture, my cats, or my computer itself, and describe it. Even if you end up deleting what you wrote or throwing it away, you are exercising the writing muscles in your brain, as well as honing your descriptive skills for when you do tackle a project you are passionate about later on.

These are, of course, just a few ideas. Search the internet for “writer’s block” and you’ll find pages upon pages of sites with ideas for combating it. Above all, the important thing is to not let the fact that you are stuck keep you down. Don’t give up, and like centuries of writers before, eventually the creative juices will begin to flow, and your writing will be productive again.

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Source by Trey Rosier

Alcohol Breathalyzer Function And Uses

An alcohol breathalyzer calculates the percentage of alcohol present in the human bloodstream by measuring the amount of alcoholic gases that are exhaled through the lungs. While first developed primarily as an aid to law enforcement officials administering sobriety tests in the field, they are now widely available on the open market and can be used for a wide variety of reasons.

Alcohol does not break down in the bloodstream and is easily transferred across the lungs’ air sacs into human breath at a known ratio to levels present in the blood. Today, most breathalyzers detect these percentages by infrared (IR) spectroscopy readings, through the chemical reaction in a fuel cell, or sensitive semiconductors.

Regardless of the type, each breathalyzer has a mouthpiece, a tube through which air is forcefully blown and a chamber where the air is held for testing. Once the air is tested, an LED or LCD panel displays an estaimated percentage of alcohol present in the blood. The calculations of levels are now so accurate that results from certain models have long been accepted as evidence in courts and many models now provide readings to with three decimal places. Over the past few years, the sizes and shapes of breathalyzers have also become more varied. Models can now be found that are smaller than the size of a cell phone and some are designed for easy placement on belts or key chains.

The most wide-scale use of breathalyzers is still within law enforcement personnel. These include police officers when there is suspicion of driving under the influence or public intoxication, booking officers during processing when a breathalyzer test was not administered at the time of arrest, probation officers verifying compliance with court orders and corrections officers verifying compliance during incarcerations.

But the common uses of alcohol breathalyzers is greatly expanding among businesses and individuals. Businesses and clinics utilize a breathalyzer when they need easy, fast and accurate ways to test for alcohol impairment. Bars and other establishments keep a breathalyzer on hand for use by patrons or to monitor problem drinkers. Parents give them as gifts to children to help keep them safe when they think they have had too much to drink, or use them as a tool to test for consumption in an under-aged child. College students are using a breathalyzer to monitor if friends are too drunk to drive or as a safeguard against alcohol poisoning. There are also now many individuals who routinely keep them handy for self-testing blood alcohol levels before driving after they have been consuming alcoholic beverages.

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Makler Heidelberg



Source by Jeremy P Stanfords

Free Press Releases – 3 Reasons to Use Them to Market Your Freelance Writing Business

Free press releases (aka releases, PR pieces) are a great way to market a freelance writing business. As a freelance writer since 1993, following is how and why I use them.

How I Use Free PR to Grow My Freelance Writing Business

Obviously, a press release is designed to capture the attention of the media. But, that’s not the overriding reasons freelance writers should use them. I’ve been a freelance writer since 1993, and think that there are three better reasons to use this form of marketing to land writing jobs.

(i) They’re Search Engine Optimized Content that Drive Traffic: Press releases are just content. And, any type of content written with SEO in mind and published on the web can drive traffic.

You see, when search engines crawl a site, they don’t care if it’s a free PR distribution site, a blog, a news site, etc. They index content – period. So when you write them, write with SEO in mind – which will help to increase traffic to your freelance writing website.

FYI, these are known as “SEO press releases.”

(ii) Use Press Releases as Writing Samples to Attract High-Paying Clients: The PR pieces you write can double as writing samples. With these little buddies in your writing portfolio, you can get higher paying clients, especially if you know how to write – and distribute – them.

For example, my rate for this type of writing is $195. If you know what you’re doing, you can write one in a couple of hours or less. Imagine doing just two of these a day?

Not a shabby living as a freelance writer, right?

(iii) Bring Prestige to Your Writing Business: Being quoted in a press release gives your business prestige. To get the most mileage out of those you write, post them in a “Media” page on your site.

When prospects come, they’ll be impressed by the fact that you even have a “Media” page.

Subconsciously, this ups your value in their eyes because it pegs you as a “Professional writing firm/writer” (if everything else on the site backs this impression up).

Prospective clients also expect to pay “prestigious professionals” more because the value you bring them is ostensibly more (and it should be).

The #1 Press Release Tip to Keep in Mind When Marketing Your Freelance Writing Business

The number one thing to keep in mind when marketing your business via releases is that it’s not about you. The media doesn’t care about you or your writing business.

They care about serving their viewers, their readers, their customers. They want to solve problems for them, and if your business just happens to do that – then they’ll be interested. If it doesn’t – no matter how well written your press release is, they won’t be interested.

Keep this in mind as you write, and you’ll stand a chance of making it newsworthy (always the goal!) and getting the hot light of the media on your freelance writing business. Good luck!

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg



Source by Yuwanda Black

Fiction Writing Grants: Augmenting Ink for Imaginative Scribes

Getting free money to publish your book is a story that is stranger than your fiction. But believe us, it does happen.

You might have already heard about it and given up with all the competition. The problem, simply put into words, is scarcity. There are too many writers and good but unpublished books out there, yet, there are only few grantors that are willing to fund them. Who can blame them? Giving away money to feed hungry mouths is relatively more urgent and more important than shedding big bucks just to get someone’s literary pieces published to the masses.

Economic conditions nowadays push funders to concentrate more on the primary needs of the people. And true enough, there is so much famine and sickness out there to prioritize works of art. So the only option left (if you’re really broke) is to bite in a very small piece of chance in the competition for fiction writing grants. Enough of the bad news, the fact is that you can ditch failure on the discerning tastes of your funder. Here’s how:

1. Show off your creativity

What would better indicate your competence in your field than being the artist you really are? If you will write a grant proposal, make sure that you will write naturally as any fiction writer would do it. Loosen a bit, however, be careful not to cross the boundaries of technical writing. Still, follow the format and get straight to your purpose every once in a while. Since authors have the uncanny ability to touch hearts through words, use it to your advantage.

2. Mention how will the gist of your novel/story will help others

Does your masterpiece have a moral or an idea that can impress and be applied on the new generation? Literature should be kept evolving through generations and people don’t just stop appreciating the craft after the computers were invented. If you believe that your fiction will impart some fresh ideas for applicable to the new times, then go on and pursue its publication no matter how tight the competition will be. You have the edge because you have written for a purpose.

3. Bring out the inspiration behind your literature

Rub the magic to your prospective funder. If the inspiration has touched you, then most probably, it will also do to the grantor. Tell about the very framework of your piece. Explain the philosophy where the plot of the story revolves. Tickle peoples’ minds – that’s the way writers charm the society. If you must, go on as far as story telling on how you came up with the idea. Once the reader understands the very essence of the work, he will come to appreciate it.

4. Sweeten the deal

Or better yet, make sure that you exceed the purpose of your contenders’ works. Why not vouch to give ten percent of what you will earn from the published work to charity? In that way, the grantor will not only help you become a successful author, he will also help others who lack their primary needs. And it counts to you too. Being able to give a part of your revenue to others is a good indication of your social responsibility.

5. Market yourself

If you’ve got an excellent fiction writing grant, you still have to make sure that you will project a remarkable personality in case you talk to them face to face. Be charming as much as your works are.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg



Source by Erin Millano

No More Lamenting, Fellow Ghost Writers

Let’s face it. Do letters crawl on paper like ants when you put a pen to it? Is your mind buzzing with thoughts which you want to desperately depict? Does even the tiniest of things spark off a volley of words? You must be a writer then, like me!

Well, that’s what I call myself for I feel terribly burdened like a pregnant woman with ideas and once I put them down-ah!- I have delivered the baby!

So much hype over just words? – you may think. But writers are crazily over-protective about their work. Yet, there are times when the urge to express supersedes the urge to earn! This is when writers compromise and agree to do “Ghostwriting”.

Writing an article and allowing it to be published under another’s name is called “Ghost-writing”. The reason writers resort to Ghost-writing might be for want of money, want of work or want of inspiration.

Having said all this, why do you want to wail? Yes, wail I must and shriek like a banshee for the cause of all such Ghost-writers like me! We Ghost-writers are a clan you see, who feel “Writing is like a form of breathing”. Yes, in a way, writing is liberation for us. We feel free and happy when we write and happier to see our works leap out of the printed screen. So when we do not find such an outlet, we become grumpy. So we settle for something (Ghost-writing) better than nothing (no writing).

Yes, cursed is our fate when we see all those hours of hard work being credited to others. It’s like giving away your child for adoption. So what must one do? You can’t jolly well have the cake and eat it too!

Yeah! So these are my suggestions to my fellow Ghost-Writers to continue being ghosts yet earn some credibility.

1. Let your writing speak for itself.

We Ghost-Writers have a style of our own- something unique and distinctive. If you don’t credit yourself with one, start developing one then and do it now!

Even when you ghost-write, try to weave your spell of magic with that style of yours!

Make your article reflect your personality!

2. The indelible stamp

Mark your articles with that indelible stamp of yours. If the strength of your content is your eloquence of language, let your article show it. If you are an exhaustive researcher, then let the facts of the article speak for you. If you have a systematic approach, let your structured article exhibit it.

In short, make your article shout your name LOUD!

3. Try to carve a niche for yourself.

Choose a few subjects or topics and make yourself proficient in it. Become the master of those subjects. Then populate those segments with your articles. Create a fan base for your articles. Make sure that you choose segments which are in vogue and have a regular stream of visitors who want more.

Once you do this, your reader base will start expecting updates and articles from you on these topics. Let your regular readers know that if we need this genre, then only so-and-so can deliver it.

Now you have carved your own niche where you will be instantly identified even by any other name!

So fellow ghosts, I mean Ghost-writers, quit moaning and start haunting, I mean, writing!

Let us do our best in being “ghosts with unseen names”! Good luck!

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg



Source by Uma Maheshwari

Roses of Sharon

I wrote this poem in honor of any non-Japanese who kept Japanese-American property safe on Bainbridge Island, WA, during the WWII Japanese-American Internment. If there even were any such people. Most other Americans ripped off J-A property, and bought their houses from the US government for cheap.

In order to round this poetry’s word count out to 200 words or more, a brief lesson on its form is required. The poetry below is informally titled “haiku,” which is a Japanese style of onomatopoeic poetry that also is supposed to conjure up an image or several images in your mind. Onomatopoeia refers to words such as “splash” that emblamize a sound. Some haiku is very set and determined in its metre, and is confined to a set amount of lines. The poem below is Americanized haiku, which means that it is more “free verse” in its styling, and that it’s not quite held to such strict standards.

One thing: I should warn you that the poem is not strictly about the Japanese American Internment. Instead, it contains imagery about Bainbridge Island that I found to be inspirational when I was visiting there a few years ago.

Are broken sideways.

The moon is the guide,

time and time again,

muddy as bean-paste

mixed with vinegar.

Oars hit waves.

My old self sits again,

with a bit of madness in me.

A big ball of snow,

not quite his fill;

piercing alarms to drive a badger away,

the beautiful pears ripe in his garden,

who my neighbor truly is.

In a way, it was fun not to see Mt. Fuji in foggy rain.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg



Source by Karen S Cole

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