Urdu is one of the most widely spoken languages in the Indian subcontinent. Other than that, communities all over the world speak it. In total almost 4 million people, speak the Urdu language.
Several factors lead to the development of Urdu language. The four most important of all the factors are given below.
1. Development of Urdu by speaking
The Urdu language was developed among the soldiers of the British Army who belonged to different nations. The word ‘Urdu’ itself means’Army’.To communicate with each other fluently, these soldiers used to speak in an amalgam of Persian, Arabic and Turkish languages.
However, very soon the language reached to the Royal courts. Actually, the language was easier than the Persian language. So the Royals also liked it. In those times, speaking Urdu became one of the trendiest things. Soon the Hindu population too started to speak it, by including many Sanskrit words to the language.
2. Development of Urdu through poetry
The Royals of the Indian subcontinent were very interested in the poetry. Amir Khusro was the first man who attempted Urdu poetry in the 13th century. It was a huge success. However, for another century no one prominent dared to experiment in Urdu poetry. In the 18th and 19th century, poets gave a major boost to the Urdu poetry. The royals too appreciated it in every way. They used to hold Mushairas in their courts and used to pay monthly stipends to the poets. Other than that, they used to bestow valuables upon their favorite poets.
3. Development of Urdu through prose
Unlike the Urdu poetry, Urdu short story or novel did not become a trend. The major reason is that the Royals were never interested in the reading. However, after the decline of Mughals and in the era of the British, a very intelligent man attempted to write an Urdu novel. The name of the man was Deputy Nazir Ahmed and the name of the novel is Mirat ul Uroos. Despite the fact that it was the first novel of Urdu, the novel became a huge success. Even today the novel is popular and in demand. In fact, Deputy Nazir Ahmed can be called the first and the most prestigious institution of the Urdu novel.
4. Development of Urdu through journalism
The Urdu journalism was late to pick up as compared to the Urdu poetry. However, as compared to the Urdu novel it picked up quite soon. In fact, when the atrocities of the British rose gradually, many prominent Hindus and Muslims took notice. So they started monthly, bimonthly, and weekly digest with focus on the current affairs and political satires.
Those magazines also had a dose of the ethics and the morals to be introduced among the Muslims and the Hindus both. It is needless to say that even the starting of the Urdu journalism contributed a lot to the mental awakening of the people of the subcontinent.
In fact, if it were not for the Urdu poetry, prose and journalism, the people of subcontinent might not had realized their worth and fought to drive the British out of the subcontinent.
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Source by Asad Asrar