A Short History of Apple

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Since its humble beginnings as a computer company flogging hand built machines conceived by an out of work college dropout, the Apple empire has certainly come far. Today, Apple Inc has almost 50,000 employees and reported a $14 billion profit in 2010, becoming one of the most valuable computer technology companies in the world. Moreover, it has become a unique brand phenomenon with Apple products being snatched up all across the world – and consumers are still clamouring for more.

From the first Apple I to the iPhone 4 – here’s a look back at some of big Apple wins and a few of its failures through the years.

1976 – Apple was first founded on 1 April 1976 by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne. Wayne subsequently sold his share of the company back to his partners for $800. The first offering by the company was a hand built Apple I personal computer retailing for $666.66.

1977 – The Apple II was introduced. Boasting colour graphics, open architecture and a floppy disk drive interface, the Apple II was positioned well ahead of its competitors and subsequently became the personal computer of choice for the business world with the VisiCalc spreadsheet program.

1983 – The Apple Lisa was launched, the first to feature a Graphical User Interface (GUI).

1984 – Apple launches the Macintosh with its powerful TV commercial directed by Ridley Scott. The Mac was a success thanks to its advanced graphical capabilities – perfect for desktop publishing.

1985 – Co-founder Steve Jobs resigns from Apple and goes on to develop a new computer company, NeXT Inc.

1989 – 1991 – Macs go portable with the Macintosh Portable and the PowerBook, which set the ground for the layout and ergonomic design for most future laptops and personal computers.

1986 – 1993 – During this time, Apple produces a few product flops including a digital camera, portable CD players and video consoles. The Newton was Apple’s foray into portable handheld computing devices but also had limited success.

1996 – Apple purchases NeXT, bringing Steve Jobs back into Apple as an advisor. He eventually became the interim CEO until 2000 when he officially stepped into the role permanently.

1998 – The iMac, with its advanced digital video editing capabilities, would become the launching pad for Apple’s return to being a computer industry leader.

2001 – Apple introduces the first generation iPod which would revolutionise the digital music industry and become hugely successful with almost 300 million iPod units in its various forms and generations sold since its debut.

2003 – To follow up on the iPod’s success, Apple launches its iTunes store.

2005 – Apple releases its popular line of Intel powered computers with the introduction of the popular MacBook, MacBook Pro and iMac. These would eventually come to replace its previous models of the PowerBook, iBook and Power Mac. Today, the Intel powered models have been updated and re-released and continue to be some of the most popular computer models sold today.

2007 – The first Apple iPhone is launched revolutionising smart phone technology and mobile computing. The App Store allowed third party developers to make and distribute iPhone compatible applications, including some of the most popular games today, like Words with Friends and Angry Birds.

2010 – Continuing to blaze new paths, Apple introduces the iPad tablet computer that worked with all iPhone applications. The iPad has already sold almost 15 million units in its first year and consumers are already looking to buy or rent an iPad 2.

Today, Apple fans are waiting for more updates on their favourite products with the iPhone 5 and the iPad 2 expected to debut in 2011.

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John Galsworthy – English Novelist and Dramatist, Co-founder and First President International PEN

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John Galsworthy’s authorship seems to develop unusually smoothly, pushed on by a conscientious and indefatigable creative impulse. Yet he is not one of those who have turned to the literary career rapidly and without resistance. Born, as the English put it, with a silver spoon in his mouth, that is, economically independent, he studied at Harrow and Oxford, chose the law without practicing it, and traveled all over the world. When, at the age of twenty-eight, he began writing for the first time, the immediate reason was the exhortation of a woman friend, and it was to Galsworthy a mere recreation, evidently not without the inherent prejudices of the gentleman, against the vocation of writing. His first two collections of tales were published under the pen name of John Sin john, and the editions were soon withdrawn by the self-critical beginner. Not until he was thirty-seven did he begin his real authorship by publishing the novel The Island Pharisees (1904), and two years later appeared The Man of Property, the origin of his fame and at the same time of his monumental chief work, The Forsyte Saga.

So went the citation for Galsworthy on the occasion of his receiving the Nobel Prize for literature in abstentia

Galsworthy was born at Kingston Hill in Surrey, England into an established upper-middle-class and wealthy family, his father, John Galsworthy, a lawyer and director of several companies and his mother, nee Blanche Bartleet, the daughter of a Midlands manufacturer. Galsworthy attended Harrow and New College, Oxford, training as a barrister and was called to the bar in 1890. Not keen to begin practicing law, he traveled abroad to look after the family’s shipping business interests whilst pursuing an unlucky love affair. During the period of his studies, he gained fame as a cricket and football player, but not with his writings. Only that once he planned to write a study of warm-blooded horses.

During his travels he met Joseph Conrad, then the first mate of a sailing-ship moored in the harbor of Adelaide Australia, and the two became close friends. In a letter he noted: “The first mate is a Pole called Conrad, and is a capital chap though queer to look at; he is a man of travel and experience in many parts of the world, and has a fund of yarns on which I draw freely.” This meeting convinced Galsworthy to give up law and devote himself entirely to writing.

In 1895 Galsworthy began an affair with Ada Nemesis Pearson, the wife of one of his cousins. with whom he lived in secret for ten years, because he did not want to cause distress to his father, who would not approve of the relationship. With his father’s death in 1904, Galsworthy became financially independent and in 1905 married Ada. They stayed together until his death in 1933. She even inspired many of Galsworthy’s female characters. Her previous unhappy marriage with Galsworthy’s cousin formed the basis for the novel The Man of Property (1906), which began the The Forsyte Saga novel sequence which established Galsworthy’s reputation as a major British writer.

From the Four Winds a collection of short stories was Galsworthy’s first published work in 1897, which with several subsequent works, were published under the pen name John Sinjohn. It would not be until The Island Pharisees (1904) that he would begin publishing under his own name, after the death of his father. His first play, The Silver Box (1906) became a success, and he followed it up with The Man of Property (1906), the first in the Forsyte trilogy.

Although he continued writing both plays and novels it was as a playwright he was mainly appreciated at the time. Along with other writers of the time such as Shaw his plays addressed the class system and social issues. Two of his best known plays were Strife (1909) and The Skin Game (1920).

He is now far better known for his novels and particularly The Forsyte Saga, the first of three trilogies of novels about the eponymous family and connected lives. These, as with many of his other works, dealt with class, and in particular upper-middle class lives. Although sympathetic to his characters he highlights their insular, snobbish and acquisitive attitudes and their suffocating moral codes. The first appearance of the Forsyte family was in one of the stories in Man of Devon (1901). The saga follows the lives of three generations of the British middle-class before 1914. Soames Forsyte, married to beautiful and rebellious Irene, was modeled after Arthur Galsworthy, the writer’s cousin. Soames rapes his wife, which was the fate Ada Galsworthy suffered at the hands of her former husband Arthur. In the second volume, In Changery (1920), Irene and Soames divorce. She marries Jolyon Forsyte, Soames’s cousin, and bears a son, Jon. Soames and his second wife, Annette Lamotte, have a daughter, Fleur. In the third volume, To Let (1921), Fleur and Jon fall in love, but Jon refuses to marry her. The second part of Forsyte chronicles, containing The White Monkey (1924), The Silver Spoon (1926), Swan Song (1928), starts on an October afternoon of 1922 and closes in 1926. ‘A Silent Wooing’ and ‘Passers By’, the two interludes, came out in 1927.

Galsworthy returned again to the world of the Forsyte books in 1931 with a further collection of stories, On Forsyte Change. Romain Rolland, the writer of Jean-Christophe (1904-1912), coined a special term, the roman-fleuve, to descibe this kind of series of novels, which can be read separately, but which form a coherent narrative.

Although Galsworthy chronicled changes in the middle-class family in England, he said in the preface of The White Monkey, that the English character had changed very little since the Victorianism of Soames and his generation. “He emerged still thinking about the English. Well! They were now one of the plainest and most distorted races of the world; and yet was there any race to compare with them for good temper and for ‘guts’? And they needed those in their smoky towns, and their climate a remarkable instance of adaptation to environment, the modern English character! ‘I could pick out an Englishman anywhere,’ he thought, ‘ and yet, physically, there’s no general type now!’ Astounding people!”

Galsworthy is viewed as one of the first writers of the Edwardian era; who challenges in his works some of the ideals of society depicted in the literature of Victorian England. The depiction of a woman in an unhappy marriage is a recurring theme in his work. Through his writings he campaigned for a variety of causes including prison reform, women’s rights, animal welfare and censorship, most of which have limited appeal outside the era in which they were written.

Galsworthy’s first four books were published at his own expense under the pseudonym John Sinjohn. After reading Maupassant and Turgenev, Galsworthy published Villa Rubein (1900), in which he started to find his own voice. These early efforts, written under the influence of Kipling and Russian novelists, he later labeled as heavy and exaggerated. The Island Pharisees (1904) the first book which came out under his own name. Galsworthy wrote originally in the first person, then in the third, and revised it again. Its final version was not finished until 1908.

In Galsworthy’s satire against the Island Pharisees, the fundamental feature that was to mark all his subsequent works was already apparent. The book deals with an English gentleman’s having stayed abroad long enough to forget his conventional sphere of thoughts and feelings. He criticizes the national surroundings severely, and in doing so he is assisted by a Belgian vagabond, who casually makes his acquaintance in an English railway compartment and who becomes his fate. At that time Galsworthy was himself a cosmopolite returned home, prepared to fight against the old capitalistic aristocratic society with about the same program as George Bernard Shaw, although the Englishman, contrary to the Irishman who fought with intellectual arms, above all aimed at capturing feeling and imagination. The pharisaical egoism of England’s ruling classes, the subject of Galsworthy’s debut, remained his program for the future, only specialized in his particular works. He never tired of fighting against all that seemed narrow and harsh in the national character, and the persistence of his attacks on social evil indicates his strong impressions and deeply wounded feeling of justice.

With the Forsyte type he now aimed at the upper middle class, the rich businessmen, a group not yet having reached real gentility, but striving with its sympathies and instincts toward the well-known ideal of the gentleman of rigid, imperturbable, and imposing correctness. These people are particularly on their guard against dangerous feelings, a fact which, however, does not exclude accidental lapses, when passion intrudes upon their life, and liberty claims its rights in a world of property instincts. Beauty, here represented by Irene, does not like to live with The Man of Property; in his bitter indignation at this, Soames Forsyte becomes almost a tragic figure. Fifteen years later that he again took up his Forsytes, the effects of the World War had radically changed the perspective. But now this work expanded; In Chancery (1920) and To Let (1921) and two short story interludes were added, and thus The Forsyte Saga proper was completed. Not finished with the younger members of the family, Galsworthy wrote A Modern Comedy, a new trilogy whose structure is exactly like that of its predecessor and consists of the three novels, The White Monkey (1924), The Silver Spoon (1926), and Swan Song (1928), united by two short story interludes. These two trilogies together form an unusual literary accomplishment. The novelist has carried the history of his time through three generations, and his success in mastering so excellently his enormously difficult material, both in its scope and in its depth, remains an extremely memorable feat in English literature.

In the foreground of this chronicle is everyday reality, as experienced by the Forsytes, all personal fortunes, conflicts, and tragicomedies. But in the background is visible the dark fabric of historical events. See, for instance, the chapter describing how Soames with his second wife witnesses the funeral of Queen Victoria in grey weather at the Hyde Park fence, and the rapid survey of the age from her accession to the throne: «Morals had changed, manners had changed, men had become monkeys twice removed, God had become Mammon – Mammon so respectable as to deceive himself.» In the Forsyte novels we observe the transformation and the dissolution of the Victorian age up to the onset of the modern age.. In the first trilogy comes to life the period that in England effected the fusion of nobility and plutocracy with the accompanying change of the notion of a «gentleman», a kind of Indian summer of wealth before the days of the storm. The second trilogy, no longer called «saga» but «comedy», describes the profound crisis of the new England whose task is to change the ruins of the past and the improvised barracks of wartime into its future home. The gallery of types is admirably complete. Robust businessmen, spoiled society ladies, aunts touching in an old-fashioned way, rebellious young girls, gentlemen of the clubs, politicians, artists, children, and even dogs – these last-mentioned especially favored by Galsworthy – emerge in the London panorama in a concrete form, alive before our eyes and ears.

The situations recur as a curious documentation of the oscillation and the undulation in a family of given hereditary dispositions. The individual portraits are distinguished, and the law of social life is at work.

One could observe in these novels how Galsworthy’s view gradually changes. The radical critic of culture rises by degrees to a greater objectivity in his appreciation and to a more liberal view of the purely human. There is his treatment of Soames, at first satirized, but then described with a respect that, reluctantly growing, finally changes into a genuine sympathy. Galsworthy has seized upon this sympathy; his characterization of Soames’s personality thoroughly worked out becomes the most memorable feature of the Forsyte saga and the comedy of the descendants. One of those masterly final episodes of Swan Song, in which Old Soames, having driven to his ancestors’ village on the west coast, finds with the help of an old census map the place where the Forsytes’ farm had been situated, where only a single stone marks the site; lingers in the reader’s mind. Something like the ghost of a path leads him down into a valley of grass and furze. He breathes in the fresh, rough sea air which goes a little to his head; he puts on his overcoat and sits musing, his back against the stone. Had his ancestors built the house themselves at this lonely place, had they been the first to settle down here? he wonders. Their England rises before him, an England «of pack horses and very little smoke, of peat and wood fires, and wives who never left you, because they couldn’t probably». He sits there a long time, absorbed in his feeling for the birthplace.

«And something moved in him, as if the salty independence of that lonely spot were still in his bones. Old Jolyon and his own father and the rest of his uncles – no wonder they’d been independent, with this air and loneliness in their blood; and crabbed with the pickling of it – unable to give up, to let go, to die. For a moment he seemed to understand even himself.»

To Galsworthy Soames thus becomes one of the last representatives of static old England. There was no humbug in him, we are told; he had his trying ways, but he was genuine. The sober prosaic respectability is in this manner duly honored in Galsworthy’s realism. As time passed, and the weary, cynical laxity grew more and more visibly modern, the chronicler found that several traits which under other circumstances had been little appreciated, perhaps really constituted the secret of the British power of resistance. On the whole, Galsworthy’s later novels are permeated with a patriotic feeling of self-defense that appears also in his descriptions of the home and studies of nature. Even these last-mentioned are rendered with a more tender and more anxious poetry, with the feeling of protecting something precious yet already shadowed by certain loss. It may be old chambers where people have established themselves as if to remain there forever. Or it may be an English garden park, where the September sun is shining beautifully on bronze-colored beech leaves and centenary hedges of yew.

It is above all in The Country House (1907), in Fraternity (1901), and in The Dark Flower (1913) that his mature essential character is seen. In the novel of the manor he created perhaps his most exquisite female portrait, Mrs. Pendyce, the type of the perfect, unaffected lady with all the modest tragedy which surrounds a truly noble nature, condemned to be restrained if not destroyed by the fetters of tradition. In Fraternity he represented, with a discreet mixture of pity and irony, the unfulfilled martyr of social conscience, the aesthete who is tortured by the shadows of the proletarian masses in London, but is not able to take the decisive step and carry out his altruistic impulse of action. There we also meet the old original Mr. Stone, the utopian dreamer with his eternal monologues beneath the night sky, indeed one of Galsworthy’s most memorable types. The Dark Flower, may be called a psychological sonata, played with a masterly hand and based on the variations of passion and resignation in the ages of man. Even in the form of the short story Galsworthy has often been able to evoke an emotional response through contrasts of shadow and light which work rather graphically. He can do this in only a few pages which become animated by his personal style, for example, when he tells about such a simple case as that of the German shoemaker in «Quality», the story of the hopeless struggle of good craftsmanship against low-price industry.

By appealing to education and the sense of justice, his narrative art has always gently influenced contemporary notions of life and habits of thought. The same is true of his dramatic works, which were often direct contributions to social discussion and led to definite reforms at least in one area, the administration of public prisons in England as through Justice (1910), a realistic portrayal of prison life that roused so much feeling that it led to prison reform.

His dramas show an unusual richness of ideas combined with great ingenuity and technical skill in the working out of scenic effect. When certain inclinations are found, they are always just and humane. Galsworthy’s plays, written in a naturalistic style, usually examines some controversial ethical or social problem. In The Forest (1924), for example, he brands the inconsiderate spirit of greed that, for crass purposes, exploits the heroism of the British world-conquering mind. The Show (1925) represents the defenselessness of the individual against the press in a family tragedy where brutal newspaper curiosity functions like a deaf and unchecked machine, removing the possibility of any one being held responsible for the resultant evil.

Loyalties (1922), dealing with the theme of anti-Semitism and which was also the best of his later plays depicts a matter of honor in which loyalty is tested and impartially examined in the different circles where it is at work, that is, the family, the corporation, the profession, and the nation. The force of these and other plays is in their logical structure and their concentrated action; sometimes possessing an atmosphere of poetic feeling that is far from trivial. especially in A Pigeon (1912) and A Bit o’ Love (1915) which, however, did not meet with such brilliant success on the stage. The Silver Box (1906), like many of his other works, has a legal theme giving a bitter contrast of the law’s treatment of the rich and the poor thus showing that there is one law for the rich and another for the poor. Later plays include The Skin Game (1920), filmed by Alfred Hitchcock in 1931, and Escape (1926), filmed for a second time in 1948 by 20th. Century-Fox, starring Rex Harrison. In the story a law-abiding man meets a prostitute and accidentally kills a police in defending her. He escapes from prison, and meets different people before giving himself up.

Although on the whole Galsworthy’s plays cannot be rated artistically with his novels, they confirm quite as plainly how strongly he sticks to his early ideal of liberty. Even in his rather cool dramatic works we meet a steady enemy of all oppression, spiritual as well as material, a sensitive man who with all his heart reacts against lack of consideration and never gives way in his demand for fair play.

We find in Galsworthy a definite musical charm catching and keeping the hidden feelings. His intuition is so infallible that he can content himself with a slight allusion and a broken hint. Galsworthy’s irony is such a singular instrument that even the tone separates him from any other writer. There are many different kinds of irony. One principal kind is negative and can be compared to the hoar-frost of the windows in a house where there is no fire, where the hearth has grown cold long ago. But there is also an irony friendly to life, springing from warmth, interest, and humanity; such is Galsworthy’s. His is an irony that, in the presence of tragicomic evil, seems to question why it must be so, why it is necessary, and whether there is nothing to remedy it. Sometimes Galsworthy makes nature herself take part in that ironic play about human beings, to underline the bitterness or sweetness of the incidents with the help of winds, clouds, fragrances, and bird cries. Assisted by this irony he successfully appeals to the psychological imagination, always the best ally of understanding and sympathy.

As we have alreagy seen , Galsworth had a quest for adventure, altruism and social commitment. This continues throughout the rest of his life. During World War I, for instance, he tried to enlist in the army, but was rejected due to his shortsightedness. He instead worked in a hospital in France as an orderly. He worked for the Red Cross in France, and helped refugees in Belgium. Galsworthy refused knighthood in 1917 in the belief that writers should not accept titles. He also gave away at least half of his income to humanitarian causes.

In 1924 Galsworthy founded PEN, the international organization of writers, with Catherine Dawson Scott and was elected as its first president. Galsworthy and Dawson Scott after contacting American writers had a center started in New York. At its inaugural meeting, April 19, 1922, at a dinner in the Coffee House Club, where about forty people gathered to which he sent a message of good will; read by Alexander Black, Chairman of the Executive Committee. Galsworthy sent warmest greetings to the new American Center and set down the central idea and hope upon which P.E.N. was founded:

We writers are in some sort trustees for human nature; if

we are narrow and prejudiced we harm the human race. And

the better we know each other….the greater the chance

for human happiness in a world not, as yet, too happy.

One of Galsworthy’s ideas from the beginning that there should be an International Congress each year, to which all the Centers would send their delegates was first held in London in 1923 with an impressive number of centers, and representatives from Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, Italy, Norway, Rumania, Spain, Sweden, and the United States. The following year the American Center hosted an International Congress, in May 1924, consisting of three days of festivities and discussions, the highlight being a gala banquet at which a letter from John Galsworthy was also read by Mrs. Dawson Scott, which emphasized the reason behind P.E.N. hospitality:

I beg you earnestly to believe that our meetings are not

just festivity, but gestures of friendliness which have

a deep and wide-reaching significance….Friends, the

P.E.N. Club was a great dream….I believe I speak from

your hearts, as well as from my own, when I say: “With

this dream we will go forward till we have made of it a

great reality.” Good fortune to you all and may you serve

this dream.

In January of 1933, a year after the Budapest Congress, John Galsworthy died from a brain tumor at his London home, Grove Lodge, Hampstead , leaving his Nobel Prize money in a trust fund for P.E.N., the last gift and contribution to an organization he loved and nurtured, watching it grow and take shape. In accordance with his will he was cremated at Woking and his ashes scattered over the South Downs from an aeroplane, but there is also a memorial in Highgate ‘New’ Cemetery.

The popularity of his fiction waned quickly after his death but the hugely successful adaptation of The Forsyte Saga in 1967 renewed interest in the writer. A number of John Galsworthy’s letters and papers are held at the University of Birmingham Special Collections. He produced 20 novels, 27 plays, 3 collections of poetry, 173 short stories, 5 collections of essays, 700 letters, and many sketches and miscellaneous works. Galsworthy’s socially committed work was attacked by D.H. Lawrence and Virginia Woolf who said in her essay ‘Mr. Bennett and Mrs. Brown’, that the Edwardian writers “developed a technique of novel-writing which suits their purpose. . . But those tools are not our tools, and that business is not our business.” The younger generation of writers accused Galsworthy of being thoroughly embodied of the values he was supposed to be criticizing. On the other hand, his influence is seen in the works of Thomas Mann, and he was widely read in France and in Russia. The Forsyte Saga gained a huge popular success as a BBC television series in 1967.


Nobel Lectures, Literature 1901-1967, Editor Horst Frenz, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1969

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Unusual Things About the Cheetah Most People Do not Know

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Everyone knows what a cheetah is. We learn about them when we're young, around the same time we learn what lions, elephants, giraffes and other animals are, and we grow up with a kind of familiarity towards them. Apart from zoos, many people will never see one of the creatures in real life, and so even though we know what they are we maintain a kind of detachment from them in our day-to-day existence. Because of this there are a number of intriguing things about this particular species of cat that a lot of people are simply unaware of. I myself did not learn most of the things I'm about to write in this article until about a month or so again.


Believe it or not, geneticists have determined that all cheetahs are naturally genetic copies of one another, and are considered to be as identical as cloned lab mice. Sounds a little far-fetched, does not it? 100% true, though, and you're welcome to browse some of the reputable internet-based scientific journals that back that statement up.

There is almost no diversity among the cheetah population whatever, and the species has suffered badly from the inbreeding which is a result of this. Modern cheetahs commonly display genetic and birth defects – curled tails, bent limbs and cramped teeth – as a result of this, in addition to poor sperm production in males. In fact, sexually mature male cheetahs produce up to 90% less sperm than other species of big cat, with as much as 75% of what they do produce in some way abnormal. If cheetahs were livestock, they would be considered infertile.

A Mix Between Dogs and Cats

Although they look like big cats and are classified as them, cheetahs actually display a remarkable combination of both distinctly feline and canine characteristics. The tan hair that covers the body is canine, while the black spots are typical cat hair. Their paws have the hard pads of dog feet in order to withstand the tremendous times at which they run (up to 75mph) and the claws do not retract, which is also like a dog and distinctly "un-catlike." Another interesting physical feature, though not necessarily canine, is their elongated spine which is what enables them to hyperextend their stride to achieve such dramatic shifts.

One of the Earliest Domesticated Animals

Oddly enough, they never tell you in elementary school that ancient civilizations were widely known to have domesticated cheetahs as pets and also trained them for use in hunting. This practice is believed to have originated in ancient Egypt, which is fitting; the Egyptians are credited with some of the most remarkable, monumental and more often than not inexplicable achievements and discoveries of their era (of any era, in all honesty), so why should not they be the first to tame cheetahs?

When you combine these three interesting facts (and they are undisputable, uniquivocably fact) about cheetahs – 1) the fact that cheetahs possess almost "cut and paste" physical characteristics of two totally separate species; 2) the fact that cheetahs display what is either a hugely aberrant evolutionary history, as most people accept, or more likely an obvious "smoking gun" pointing directly towards some kind of genetic tampering; 3) and that the one culture most renamed for its inexplicable and advanced technology also benefited directly and consistently from these two bizarre qualities – it's impossible to begin asking the things we're being told, or at least wondering how discrepancies this different are so casually written off.

It is past time for us to begin examining the mounting evidence of inexplicable feats and phenomenon worldwide, both modern and historical, that does not conform to the view of reality that modern science has established, and reinstructing the way we view the world so that they do. What is the cheetah, and what are the explinations for its extraordinary genetic attributes? Why does contemporary mainstream science brush this off so readily? Who are we really, and where did we come from?

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Seventies Eccentrics

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There was an abundance of eccentric personalities in the late Seventies, and Olga Deterding, the Shell oil heiress was one of them. She wasn’t as wild as the characters in “Frantic”, my nostalgic novel about the early ’70’s (‘A lion coat clad white girl, with waist length black Japanese hair, was leaning against the stage, mouthing excruciating obscenities from her exquisitely shaped lips. …. every time this creature from a lost planet opened her shaggy lion coat, she was totally nude underneath’), but she came pretty close. Olga was an enthusiastic socialite, and at the opening party of Wedgies nightclub in Kings Road, was so sloshed like she regularly was, that she spent most of her time crawling around on the floor underneath the tables. This anti-social behaviour was regarded as the norm in those days, so nobody cared if she made a fool of herself. One person who did was a German girlfriend, who was staying with me at the time. She thought it was shocking that this middle-aged woman was making a spectacle of herself. Maybe members of café society were hesitant to reprimand an heiress, but my girlfriend had no idea who anybody was and even if she did, she wouldn’t have cared less. ‘Get up immediately! You are making an idiot of yourself. Can’t you see that everyone is laughing at you,’ my Teutonic friend barked. Olga Deterding might have been inebriated, but she actually listened and managed to pick herself up from the floor, and plonk herself down on a chair where she promptly fell of again.

She entertained lavishly in her multi-storey penthouse in Piccadilly, opposite the Ritz hotel, which was ideal for parties. She once gave an after show party for her equally eccentric crony, Quentin Crisp after his sell-out, one-man show at the Duke of York. If I recall correctly, the penthouse walls were painted a glossy white and the décor, consisting of realistic sheep sculptures nibbling at the grass coloured carpet was a topic of conversation. Olga was single (her exes included Alan Whittaker), and similar to women of ‘a certain age’ was regularly escorted by members of the gay community, which included Quentin Crisp. Olga was a louche socialite, from whom everyone ran away from when she was peaking in a fit of drunken exhibitionism. But, she possessed a heart of gold, unlike a lot of ‘ladies who lunched’ in those days. The majority of them lionised their hairdressers and fashion designers, and were committed to the art of looking fabulous. Olga was past caring what she looked like while she lurched from one party to another. At least she was dressed for dinner when she choked to death on on a piece of meat, while dining out in a club. Her premature exit made the headlines.

Copyright: Frances Lynn, 2006

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8 Sentence Patterns for Academic and Technical Writing

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An expert academic or technical writer needs only a few basic sentence patterns to produce easy-to-understand writing. Each of the sentence patterns below will result in clear academic or technical writing. However, do not use any one pattern more than twice in a row to prevent the writing from sounding repetitive and boring. Also, use the more complex sentence patterns less frequently. They are more challenging for the reader and may make the writing overall more complex than necessary.

All effective sentence patterns start with the Subject-Verb-Object (S-V-O) sentence structure. Optional components are additional S-V-O structures and descriptive words, phrases, and clauses (D), which can be placed in various locations.

In the samples below, the subjects are underlined, and the main verbs are in italics.

1. Simple sentence (S-V-O): A simple sentence has one subject-verb pair. It starts with the subject (or an adjective and the subject). The subject is immediately followed by the verb (or an adverb and the verb). A simple sentence may contain an object.

Example 1: The computer desktop provides access to your files.

2. Simple sentence with a simple introductory description (D + S-V-O): The main sentence is a simple sentence. It is preceded by a simple descriptive phrase with only one level of description (2a) or a simple descriptive clause with only one subject and verb (2b). If you need to describe some aspect of the introductory description, use two sentences. Otherwise, the description will be overly complex and increase the potential for confusion.

Example 2a: As designed, the computer desktop provides access to your files.

Example 2b: When your computer is working properly, the computer desktop provides access to your files.

3. Compound simple sentence (S-V-O + S-V-O): Two simple sentences are joined by a conjunction.

Example 3: The computer desktop provides access to your files, and the external hard drive stores back-up files.

4. Compound simple sentence with a simple introductory description (D + S-V-O + S-V-O): This pattern combines the previous two patterns.

Example 4: According to the instructions, the computer desktop provides access to your files, and the external hard drive stores back-up files.

5. Simple sentences with compound predicates (S-V-O + V-O): The subject has two main verbs.

Example 5: The computer desktop provides access to your files and contains shortcuts to common programs and folders.

6. Simple sentences with compound objects (S-V-O + O): The verb has two objects. Not every sentence has an object, but a sentence that can have one object can also have two.

Example 6: The computer desktop provides access to your files and critical information about your computer.

7. Simple sentence with descriptive phrase for the subject or verb (S+D -V-O; S- V+D -O): A descriptive phrase follows the subject (7a) and either follows or precedes the verb (7b). If you use a descriptive phrase after the subject, keep it as short as possible because it will separate the subject and the main verb. A descriptive phrase does not have a subject and verb.

Example 7a: The computer desktop, your starting point, provides access to your files.

Example 7b: The computer desktop provides, as simply as possible, access to your files.

8. Sentence with ending descriptive phrase or clause (Sentence + D): Any of the previous sentence patterns can be followed by a descriptive phrase or clause. For example, the descriptive clause in example 8a follows a simple sentence, the descriptive phrase in example 8b follows a compound sentence, and the descriptive phrase in example 8c follows a simple sentence with a simple introductory description.

Example 8a: The computer desktop provides access to your files, which is handy when you need to locate a file quickly.

Example 8b: The computer desktop provides access to your files, and the external hard drive stores back-up files, thus providing two ways to access all files.

Example 8c: As designed, the computer desktop provides access to your files, with back-up copies on the external drive.

Other sentence patterns: These eight sentence types will serve you well in nearly every instance. You can modify them to create other patterns. For example, you can add descriptive words in multiple locations. With each sentence you write, however, consider the level of complexity and consider whether a simpler pattern will work. Some cautions: (1) keep the S-V-O pattern intact, (2) only use one level of description, and (3) use few descriptive clauses and phrases, if any.

By using these sentence patterns, you will communicate clearly with your readers and will become more competent with academic or technical writing.

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5 Marketing Automation Techniques That Convert Leads Into Worshiping You

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You may invest a lot of money to build your website and attract visitors.

But what if you keep spending money on SEO, online advertising and other types of marketing with no customers to show for it?

Or less customers and sales than you hoped for or planned?

The results could force you to borrow money …

Egypt lay off workers …

or lose your business. Now that would be bad.

But what if there is a way to prevent that from happening?

What if this new way could help you achieve your goals faster and easier?

You see, all the money you invest in SEO and other traffic building tactics will show little or no return if you do not convert leads into customers.

Sales conversion is where you make money. As your sales conversion rate goes up, your cost per customer goes down. And your profit increases at a higher rate.

What a Marketing Automation System Can Do for You
A marketing automation system can help you convert leads fast. So you can earn a return on your investment sooner. Plus, it can help you get customers to buy more from you, more frequently.

An automation system involves server-based software that automates processes for each contact. It does this information about and behavior by the contact. This system is more than just autoresponders. It integrates a customer relationship management, rules and other intelligent functions to help you boost sales conversion.

Here are five marketing automation techniques to help you convert leads into customers.

Marketing Automation Technique # 1: Lead Scoring
Lead Scoring enables you to rank your contacts in response to the actions that they take after they opt in. Lead scoring helps you know who your qualified leads are. So you can funnel them into the right sales conversion sequence.

Marketing Automation Technique # 2: Tagging
Tagging is a way of segmenting your leads. So you can convert leads into sales.

An automation system can tag your leads by the advertising source, type of contact, and other demographic and psychographic data. You can also tag them by the email links that they click on, or when they navigate a certain page of your website. Then your marketing automation system can put them into a custom sequence of messages that fits the tag. So the follow-up message can be more personalized to their needs and wants.

Marketing Automation Technique # 3: SMS Texting
SMS texting is a faster and more reliable method of sending a message than email or print. About 90% of people read their text messages within 3 minutes of receiving them. And texting has 6 to 8 times engagement compared with email. So not only do you get your message read faster, but your contact is also more engaged. How awesome is that?

Marketing Automation Technique # 4: Split Testing
Split testing is a method that many direct marketers use to maximize results. An automation system can allow you to split test two or more sales letters or emails. So you can find out what message works best in sales conversion.

Marketing Automation Technique # 5: Shopping Cart Abandonment Follow-up
The sad fact is many folks – as much as 67% or more – abandon their shopping carts. Yet if you follow-up, you can still close the sale. A marketing automation system can help you to follow-up on these HOT LEADS who abandon the shopping cart and convert leads into customers. So you can increase sales conversion rate.

In fact, abandoned shopping carts that trigger email response recaptures 29% of abandoned sales. Think about how much more money you could make if you could get those folks back to buy from you.

Where to Start
If you have a marketing automation system, start to execute the five techniques above and watch your sales increase.

If you do not have an automation system, then think about getting one. You'll be able to use one or more of the techniques above to boost your sales conversion. The good news is that its affordable for many small businesses.

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Source by Jeff Traister

How To Write a Conversational Style Article

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Writing a conversational style article takes skill. It is important to be able to refer to the reader in an informal manner, without losing credibility or professionalism. The words in a conversational article should flow like a two way interaction between you and the reader. Sometimes, articles written in this style can seem too much like a blog post and not engage the reader as much as it could. It may also be too informal to make the writer seem like a reliable source. Here are some tips on creating a more engaging conversational style article.

Tip 1: Address the Reader Directly

It is always more engaging to read an article that uses "you" rather than "they" or "them." Make sure the words that you use are directed to the reader, so there is no question that the information that you are presenting applies to them. For example, in an article about saving money, I might write, "You can save more money by using coupons when you go grocery shopping." This is more effective than writing, "Many people save money …"

Tip 2: Use questions

Articles that are guided by stated questions help the reader to mentally categorize the information that you are about to talk about. It also gives them a sense that you understand their thinking process. For example, in an article about saving money, I could write about using coupons, then use a subheading like "Are you wondering where to find a good selection of coupons?" I would then proceed by telling the reader where coupons can be found. Speaking generally about the subject and then anticipating a more detailed question that a reader might be thinking about is a great way to keep their attention.

Tip 3: Avoid Slang and poor grammar

The tendency of many writers is to forget about proper English when writing in a conversational style. This can detract from the credibility of the writer. It is important to maintain a down to earth connection with the reader, without using slang that the reader may or may not be familiar with. Poor grammar will stand out more on a page than in an actual conversation. The implication of poor grammar is often a lack of education (even though this may not be true).

Tip 4: Use simple words

If you really want your readers to feel invited to enjoying and learning from your writing, do not use words that they need to grab a dictionary for. It is nice that you know larger words and have a developed vocabulary, but many people are easily turned off from reading in general because they do not understand the meaning of certain words. Consider your audience, and only use technical jargon, special words used only by a certain profession or group, if that is the audience you are addressing. Readers tend to get the impression that you do not want them to really understand. They might feel that you are making a point of being smarter than them if you use several words that they are not familiar with at all.

Tip 5: Use a logical progress of thought

Think about how a normal conversation takes place. It is easy for people to start off talking about one thing and end up talking about another. In a conversational style article, this can happen as well. Feel free to follow your train of thought or one that you predict the reader will go on. Make sure that you bring everything back to the original topic, however, and tie the tangent into the conclusion. (This takes practice.) You should let everything flow naturally, and then go back and edit. If you find thoughts that do not seem relevant, cut them out and plan to use them in a future article. Conversations happen rather spontaneously, and your article should have that kind of twist, without wandering off of the subject to much.

A good conversational style article will draw the reader in by addressing them directly, use questions to guide subtopics, use simple yet proper words, and flow naturally. If you apply these tips to the next conversational style article that you write, it will be engaging and your audience will want to read more.

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Writing Political Radio Scripts

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The challenge for any election season is to write radio scripts that touch the heart and not deflect off the shield that surrounds the soul of most voters. The condition of the mind has been evolving since the first political radio commercials. The challenge for the writer is obvious. Be subtle in the approach. The days of overt name calling or shouting the candidates name in hopes of making an impression with the voters is over. With so many listening options outside the commercial radio market, candidates and special interest groups will demand much more from the writers than before.

Scott Radio, a radio political voice and script writing organization conducted a survey of over five hundred radio listeners in a quest to understand the mindset or comfort zone of the average radio listener. Some of the discoveries were as follows:

First, the tolerance level for commercials is eroding. Fifty percent of those surveyed stated that they have a quick "trigger" to avoid commercials.

Second, the survey revealed that for political radio advertising specifically, the over saturation by candidates during the campaign is reason enough to avoid commercial radio.

Finally, the research shows that candidate bashing is what the cable news shows do each day in such detail that for a candidate to spend time on the negative issue radio advertising is pointless.

The content of the commercial usually outdated. The American public is now quick to find resolution to an issue. They no longer wait for someone else to assess guilt or innocence. They frame their opinion and only when presented overwhelming evidence to the contrary do they waiver. They take pride in being stubborn on political issues, because they can be.

To spend money advertising issues or negative commentary about an opponent now runs the risk of being old copy, as the voter has mostly formed an opinion before the commercial is produced. By the time the political attack ads make the commercial rotation, a new issue will have surfaced. There is a much better way. scottradio.com has discovered it.

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Classification of Servers

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Server is a program which runs on a computer like a service and it fulfills the requirements of other programs which are not installed on the same PC.

Server Computer

This is a computer that is linked with other PC’s or devices and provides necessary network services to the users within an organization or outside users. There are different types of operating systems of hardware which drive or run the server and they are known as server platforms.

There are various types of servers used according to the use. We can discuss on different types of servers as:

Application Servers

An application server is a machine that does the work of connecting two databases or applications. It works like a middleware as a connection medium for two applications. If we take an example then these are the (middleware) products connecting a database system to a web server. Many organizations which are working on and providing various support services like server support, network management, IT management etc. are using different application servers.

Audio-Video Servers

They provide the multimedia features to the websites and allow them to program the streaming content. For transferring data the streaming technique is used and it can be processed steadily and continuously. It is popular today because many users don’t have fast access to download the content quickly. For better streaming the receiver’s side should be able to convert the data into sound and graphics.

Chat Servers

The chat servers allow the users to transfer the data or information within an environment which is similar and offer immediate discussion features. These are working on a real-time technique means immediate response. We can understand it by taking an example of a real-time operating system which responds quickly after getting an input.

FTP Servers

These are one of the Internet features which allow the users to transfer the files securely between the PC’s. The FTP Servers can move one or more than one files providing file security.

Fax Servers

The fax server is software which runs on a server with some fax modems. These are attached with the telephone lines and are capable to transmit the documents as they are to the receivers end. They can receive the information to their own side as well.

Groupware Servers

These servers let the users to interact and work together in a virtual location. They can collaborate together with different locations simultaneously.

IRC Servers

It is also like a chat server. What we chat is depends on the internet relay chat servers, it is like a network allowing the users to chat via different chat servers.

Mail Servers

The mail servers mainly store and move the electronic mails with different networks via LAN, WAN through the Internet.

Proxy Servers & Web Servers

A proxy server works as an intermediary or a computer system which allows other clients to connect with indirect network connections to other network services.

Web server is the hardware and the software which helps and allows the content and information over the internet.

The above information can be useful to those who are studying about servers and also seeking information about managed IT services as well.

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Source by Fateh Kumar Singh