Advantages and Disadvantages of Technology

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In the current time people can’t imagine their life without technology. Surrounding us various technologies are helping people to live their life with more luxury. The technology sector has changed and developed many products. The technology is providing many advantages but also it has some disadvantages. Here we will discuss about both –

Advantages

There are several advantages of technology like

Easier life – With technological machine people are getting help in every sector. Cars and bikes are helping people to reach anywhere quickly. Airplane and superfast trains have been reduced distance between cities and countries. Computer and internet are providing information in simplest way also it has changed way of communication. Now people are doing video conferencing and chatting to communicate with their friends and family used communication technology.

Lesser Mistakes – Machines are helping people to make lesser mistakes. Robots or machines are working accurately and you just need to program them with proper information. Like in production of any automotive most of manufacturing companies are using automatic machines which follow instruction of computer or that person who is operating the machine. And all work gets done perfectly.

Save Time – Technologies are saving our time, for an example you can flew anywhere in the world in lesser time. With computer you can do any work in lesser time and also it help to enhance quality and provide suggestions. Machines are helping people in kitchen too – like Oven and these are also saving time.

Disadvantages

Every one knows that technology is very helpful but it has some disadvantages too. Because many companies have adopted automatic machines so that they can improve their production with accuracy. As a result many people lost their job.

Similarly house maids are losing their job because robotic machines are doing their job. Owner need to pay one time only while maid get paid for every month.

However machines and robots look inexpensive and good to use but, when any technical problem occurs in machine or robot, it took much time to fix it and also it can be expensive.

As we found that in technology sector, there are many advantages and disadvantages, even then people can’t imagine their life without technology including me.

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Source by Suman Ahliya

What Causes Inflation?

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Inflation has many causes according to the experts. Although experts can’t agree completely on what the exact causes of inflation really are, most of them agree that inflation is due to either quality and/or quantity. The quality theory of inflation says that a person who earns money will be able to use that money to buy the good he wants. The quantity theory of inflation says that money should be viewed in how much of it is supplied and exchanged.

The three most common forms of inflation are demand pull inflation, cost push inflation, and built in inflation. Demand pull inflation is a result of low unemployment rates and an increased consumer demand for items. Cost push inflation happens when something that people use a lot becomes harder to get. For instance when oil is hard to get gas prices go up. Built-in inflation means that as the price of items increases, people try to increase the amount that they earn to keep up with the price of goods.

As a result of the increase in wages the employers pass along their own higher costs to the employees making it a no win situation. Some experts say that it is the amount of money that is in circulation that causes inflation by lowering the value of the money in general. Sometimes the result of having too much money in the economy can lead to such disasters as prices doubling in a short period of time. This is called hyper inflation and it usually happens during a war when a government might try to finance their own spending by printing more and more money. Another reason there might be too much money in the economy is when people stop spending money unexpectedly and drastically like what happened during the time of the black plague in Europe. Other experts insist that inflation and unemployment cannot ever be low at the same time. If unemployment is high inflation is low. And if inflation is high, unemployment is low. Therefore, some level of unemployment must be sacrificed in order to keep inflation down.

Still other experts believe that it is normal for the economy to be effected by inflation. This theory is shown by the Phillips curve which allows inflation to cycle up and down according to the shift between unemployment and inflation. Another theory of inflation uses the gross domestic product to measure the effects of inflation on the economy. This theory uses what is called potential output. This means that the state of the economy is measured against what is determined to be the best level of production for the nation. If the gross domestic product is higher than it should be and if unemployment is lower than it should be the result is that the rate of inflation will increase because suppliers will raise their prices and built in inflation will get worse.

On the other hand if the gross domestic product is lower than it should be and if unemployment is higher than it should be inflation will decrease because suppliers will not have enough goods and will have to lower their prices in order to bypass built in inflation. The biggest problem with this theory is that there is no way to really determine what the exact potential output should be and that whatever it is it probably changes a lot. Inflation causes a number of problems. People who live on limited incomes like those who are retired are going to have trouble making ends meet. The increase in inflation may cause worker’s unions to bargain for higher wages which can cause a wage spiral or the no win situation described above. And if a union goes on strike because they want higher wages there may not be enough products produced to meet the needs of the economy. And the difference between countries in regards to inflation may mean that items that are produced in one country may be too expensive for people in another country to buy.

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Source by Rebecca Stigall

Why Do We Need Software Engineering?

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To understand the necessity for software engineering, we must pause briefly to look back at the recent history of computing. This history will help us to understand the problems that started to become obvious in the late sixties and early seventies, and the solutions that have led to the creation of the field of software engineering. These problems were referred to by some as “The software Crisis,” so named for the symptoms of the problem. The situation might also been called “The Complexity Barrier,” so named for the primary cause of the problems. Some refer to the software crisis in the past tense. The crisis is far from over, but thanks to the development of many new techniques that are now included under the title of software engineering, we have made and are continuing to make progress.

In the early days of computing the primary concern was with building or acquiring the hardware. Software was almost expected to take care of itself. The consensus held that “hardware” is “hard” to change, while “software” is “soft,” or easy to change. According, most people in the industry carefully planned hardware development but gave considerably less forethought to the software. If the software didn’t work, they believed, it would be easy enough to change it until it did work. In that case, why make the effort to plan?

The cost of software amounted to such a small fraction of the cost of the hardware that no one considered it very important to manage its development. Everyone, however, saw the importance of producing programs that were efficient and ran fast because this saved time on the expensive hardware. People time was assumed to save machine time. Making the people process efficient received little priority.

This approach proved satisfactory in the early days of computing, when the software was simple. However, as computing matured, programs became more complex and projects grew larger whereas programs had since been routinely specified, written, operated, and maintained all by the same person, programs began to be developed by teams of programmers to meet someone else’s expectations.

Individual effort gave way to team effort. Communication and coordination which once went on within the head of one person had to occur between the heads of many persons, making the whole process very much more complicated. As a result, communication, management, planning and documentation became critical.

Consider this analogy: a carpenter might work alone to build a simple house for himself or herself without more than a general concept of a plan. He or she could work things out or make adjustments as the work progressed. That’s how early programs were written. But if the home is more elaborate, or if it is built for someone else, the carpenter has to plan more carefully how the house is to be built. Plans need to be reviewed with the future owner before construction starts. And if the house is to be built by many carpenters, the whole project certainly has to be planned before work starts so that as one carpenter builds one part of the house, another is not building the other side of a different house. Scheduling becomes a key element so that cement contractors pour the basement walls before the carpenters start the framing. As the house becomes more complex and more people’s work has to be coordinated, blueprints and management plans are required.

As programs became more complex, the early methods used to make blueprints (flowcharts) were no longer satisfactory to represent this greater complexity. And thus it became difficult for one person who needed a program written to convey to another person, the programmer, just what was wanted, or for programmers to convey to each other what they were doing. In fact, without better methods of representation it became difficult for even one programmer to keep track of what he or she is doing.

The times required to write programs and their costs began to exceed to all estimates. It was not unusual for systems to cost more than twice what had been estimated and to take weeks, months or years longer than expected to complete. The systems turned over to the client frequently did not work correctly because the money or time had run out before the programs could be made to work as originally intended. Or the program was so complex that every attempt to fix a problem produced more problems than it fixed. As clients finally saw what they were getting, they often changed their minds about what they wanted. At least one very large military software systems project costing several hundred million dollars was abandoned because it could never be made to work properly.

The quality of programs also became a big concern. As computers and their programs were used for more vital tasks, like monitoring life support equipment, program quality took on new meaning. Since we had increased our dependency on computers and in many cases could no longer get along without them, we discovered how important it is that they work correctly.

Making a change within a complex program turned out to be very expensive. Often even to get the program to do something slightly different was so hard that it was easier to throw out the old program and start over. This, of course, was costly. Part of the evolution in the software engineering approach was learning to develop systems that are built well enough the first time so that simple changes can be made easily.

At the same time, hardware was growing ever less expensive. Tubes were replaced by transistors and transistors were replaced by integrated circuits until micro computers costing less than three thousand dollars have become several million dollars. As an indication of how fast change was occurring, the cost of a given amount of computing decreases by one half every two years. Given this realignment, the times and costs to develop the software were no longer so small, compared to the hardware, that they could be ignored.

As the cost of hardware plummeted, software continued to be written by humans, whose wages were rising. The savings from productivity improvements in software development from the use of assemblers, compilers, and data base management systems did not proceed as rapidly as the savings in hardware costs. Indeed, today software costs not only can no longer be ignored, they have become larger than the hardware costs. Some current developments, such as nonprocedural (fourth generation) languages and the use of artificial intelligence (fifth generation), show promise of increasing software development productivity, but we are only beginning to see their potential.

Another problem was that in the past programs were often before it was fully understood what the program needed to do. Once the program had been written, the client began to express dissatisfaction. And if the client is dissatisfied, ultimately the producer, too, was unhappy. As time went by software developers learned to lay out with paper and pencil exactly what they intended to do before starting. Then they could review the plans with the client to see if they met the client’s expectations. It is simpler and less expensive to make changes to this paper-and-pencil version than to make them after the system has been built. Using good planning makes it less likely that changes will have to be made once the program is finished.

Unfortunately, until several years ago no good method of representation existed to describe satisfactorily systems as complex as those that are being developed today. The only good representation of what the product will look like was the finished product itself. Developers could not show clients what they were planning. And clients could not see whether what the software was what they wanted until it was finally built. Then it was too expensive to change.

Again, consider the analogy of building construction. An architect can draw a floor plan. The client can usually gain some understanding of what the architect has planned and give feed back as to whether it is appropriate. Floor plans are reasonably easy for the layperson to understand because most people are familiar with the drawings representing geometrical objects. The architect and the client share common concepts about space and geometry. But the software engineer must represent for the client a system involving logic and information processing. Since they do not already have a language of common concepts, the software engineer must teach a new language to the client before they can communicate.

Moreover, it is important that this language be simple so it can be learned quickly.

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Source by Edeh Chijioke

Origins of the Mathers Family

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Eminem’s roots can be found in Scandinavia through his mother Debbie Nelson and in South Wales through his father Marshall Bruce Mathers II.

But Eminem has mostly Scottish blood running through his veins. On both sides( maternal and paternal sides), Scottish roots can be found.

Back to the 7 th generation on the paternal side, Peter Mathers from Pennsylvania married a Scottish woman named Isabella (last name unknown). On the maternal side, Scottish roots can be found in Marshall’s family in the 6 th generation : Ailsa Mc Allister from Edingburgh emigrated to the United States –precisely to New York in 1870.

Most of the Mathers have been working as farmers in the state of Missouri.

Marshall Mathers I, Eminem’s paternal grandfather has been working as an assistant hotel manager at Plainsman Hotel in st Joseph Missouri and his wife Rae has been employed at Del Cornonado hotel in guest services.

When Eminem’s paternal grandmother Rae died recently in 2002 from an Alzheimer desease , Marshall Mathers II discovered interesting documents related to his famous son like a Christmas card from Marshall addressed to his grandmother Rae. Ethymology of the name Mathers Mathers means mower or reaper. History of the name Mathers

The name Mathers is related to the Scottish Barclay clan. The family Barclay settled down in a place called Mathers in Scotland in the 13 th century. The history of the Mathers goes back to an english immigrant Theobald de Berkeley and his son who owned the estate of Mathers. Alexander was the first to use the surname Mathers. Pronounciation of the surname Mathers

It is commonly admitted that the surname Mathers is pronounced as if there was an y in the middle of the name : Ma(y)thers .

If you want to know more about the history and genealogy of the family Mathers, you can find some interesting info here :

homepage.ntlworld.com/davepalmer/eminem/credits.htm [http://homepage.ntlworld.com/davepalmer/eminem/credits.htm] I’d like to thank the people who made up this interesting website. I discovered a lot of info about Marshall’s paternal side. I have a lot of info about his maternal side, so I hope to be able to complete his family tree as soon as possible.

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Health Tips for Writers: 7 Ways to Reduce Strain and Fatigue From Typing

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People who think writing isn’t manual labor haven’t done any. It’s true you don’t use your legs or cardiovascular system the same way you would in some occupations, but the strain on your eyes, neck, back, and wrists more than makes up for it. Headaches, chronic fatigue, and carpal tunnel pain are just a few of the physical occupational hazards facing writers and other workers who type a lot. As a professional freelance writer, I’ve become more familiar with these writing-related ailments than I care to be. To help others in a similar situation, here are seven ways I’ve found to help reduce strain and fatigue when writing.

1. Create a Comfortable Workspace

First, create a comfortable workspace. Your workspace includes your desk, your screen, your keyboard and other input devices such as a mouse or digital pen, and your chair. Discomfort, strain, fatigue, and pain can result from placing any of these in awkward positions.

Position everything so that you can sit up straight with your screen at eye level, your hands placed comfortably, your back and hips comfortably supported, and your feet placed comfortably on the floor. Adjust the height, lateral positioning, and distance of the elements of your workspace to achieve this.

Avoid placing your screen so that you have to tilt your head or twist your neck to see it. Keep your keyboard and other input devices at a height where you can drape your hands comfortably over them rather than flexing your wrists and fingers up when you type or click. Keep your input devices at a distance where you don’t have to overextend your elbows to use them. Adjust the height and positioning of your chair to conform with these principles.

2. Sit Comfortably

Creating a comfortable workspace is a step towards sitting comfortably, which is another key to avoiding fatigue and strain while writing. Good posture will also help with sitting comfortably. Following a few important posture principles will provide you with solid structural support, minimizing strain and maximizing comfort.

When you sit down to write, keep your head up so that the center of your screen viewing area is at eye level. Keep your neck and spine straight by adjusting your shoulders so that they align vertically over your hips. Let your feet rest supported flat on the floor or a supporting surface.

Avoid posture problems by monitoring the positions of your head, neck, spine, shoulders, and hips. Don’t lean forward with your neck or trunk. Don’t let your head droop. Don’t slouch your shoulders. Don’t push your hips ahead of your upper body. Don’t let your feet dangle behind you or stretch them out ahead of your body.

3. Warm Up

Warming up before you type will help you avoid fatigue and repetitive motion strain. This is especially important if you tend to experience wrist stiffness when typing, but it’s a good practice in general to prevent stiffness and boost energy.

Spend a few minutes warming up your eyes, neck, shoulders, arms, wrists, and fingers. Take at least 10 to 30 seconds for each of these body parts, moving in different directions to stretch the muscles and stimulate circulation.

Here’s a quick chair exercise warm-up routine you can adapt to your needs:

  • Open your mouth and eyes wide as if to yawn, then close them gently, clicking your teeth together lightly. Repeat 10 to 30 times.
  • Loosen your neck and shoulders by rolling your arms in circles, reaching up and out in front of you as if grabbing a big ball or a pair of rowing oars, then pulling your arms down and back behind you to complete the circle. Repeat 10 to 30 times. (If you are in an environment or physical condition which does not allow you to make large circles like this, you can make smaller circles by putting your hands on your hips, with the backs of your wrists on your sides as if making a pair of bird’s wings, and just rolling your shoulders.)
  • Push your hands out in front of you while flexing your wrists back and extending your elbows, as if pushing something away, and then slowly squeeze your fingers together while pulling back, imagining digging your fingers into something warm and squishy. Repeat 10 to 30 times.

I’ve found that warming up like this before I type makes a huge difference in whether I feel stiff or not.

4. Work in Short Bursts

Sitting and typing too long at one time will strain your eyes and body, triggering fatigue and reducing productivity. You’ll have more energy and write more if you work in short bursts instead of typing non-stop marathons. For peak performance, 30 to 45 minutes is about as long as you should go before taking a short break.

5. Pause to Blink and Yawn

Whether you’re typing or taking a break, you should pause periodically to blink and yawn. Staring at a screen and focusing too long strains your eye muscles and can trigger headaches and tension in the jaw and neck. You can alleviate this by remembering to pause periodically to blink and yawn.

6. Stop to Stretch

During breaks, running through a brief stretching routine will help you loosen up stiffness and refuel your energy. Simply walking around and moving your arms will help. You can also repeat your warm-up routine.

7. Use Alternate Input Devices

A final way to reduce fatigue and pain from writing is to use alternate input devices to cut down strain from typing. I prefer to compose my outlines with a pen in a notebook before I ever sit down at a computer. Other ways to avoid typing are to use a digital smartpen, which can convert your written words to digital text while recording your voice, or text-to-voice software like Dragon NaturallySpeaking, which will record your voice and translate it into text. You can even record yourself and then hire a transcriptionist to type it.

These are a few of the most important strategies you can use to reduce the physical stress and strain that comes with writing. Adopting these tips will make writing a more comfortable experience and give you more energy to get more done.

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Source by Roy Rasmussen

Introduction to Online Auction Websites

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Over the years, online auction websites are gaining immense popularity. Online auctions present great opportunities to entrepreneurs and shoppers alike. They offer a common platform where buyers and sellers can bid or sell just about anything. Bidding on the auction websites is convenient and highly cost-effective. Most of the auction portals present automated bidding with a multitude of listing categories and subcategories. They enable buyers and sellers to make transactions in real time. Auction portals are developed on an advanced software solution that makes the e-marketplace secure for bidders and sellers. Moreover, good online auction websites always maintain focus on ease of navigation to maintain optimum website usability.

As a seller, you can make sales quickly in a highly competitive market. Sellers have complete control over their products that are on auction including display of products under specific categories and listings. You can also disclose important product details to ensure transparency and build trust among buyers. Moreover, online auction websites offer tools that assist sellers in listing products and managing their product catalog. These tools assist in adding product images, product descriptions, canceling bids and so on.

For the buyer, bidding on online auctions is fun and extremely easy. The website provides all the essential tools and resources to help members bid with assured security and confidence. To keep the auction transparent, auction websites also provide all necessary information about the product and seller. Moreover, the advanced B2B platform facilitates smooth browsing, easy bidding, and secured transactions.

In this manner, online auctions caters to the needs of everyone.

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Source by Vinay Shingornikar