Checkers – Facts and History

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The game of checkers is older than most people think. Some facts and history about the ancient game of checkers:

  • Scholars believe the modern game evolved from a similar game played as far back as 1400 B.C.E. called Alquerque or Quirkat. It was played in ancient Egypt, Rome, Greece and India. The game used two sets of round flat pieces in different colors. It was played on a 5 x 5 grid. There were ten pieces per side, and the object was to capture all the opposing pieces.
  • The next development towards modern checkers is thought to have come from 13th century southern France. The rules and pieces of Alquerque were expanded to be played on an 8 x 8 chess board. The game was called Fierges, the pieces called ferses, the identical name given to the queen in chess.
  • By the 15th century, the earlier association with the queen in chess saw the name of the game changed to Jeu De Dames, most often shortened to Dames.
  • By the 16th century, Dames was very popular in France. Variants of the game were many, and one of these was the ‘forced capture’ variant, where a player had to capture an opponents piece instead of making a different move. This variant became known as Jeu Force.
  • The game of Jeu Force was taken to England where it was called draughts, and finally to North America where it was called checkers.
  • In France the game of Dames without the forced capture rule was still popular and called Le Jeu Plaisant De Dames, shortened to Plaisant. In the 18th century, the game in France changed to a 10 x 10 grid and 20 pieces on each side. This game is still played and is known as International or Continental Draughts.
  • There are international tournaments for both Checkers/Draughts and International Draughts. The first tournament for English Draughts occurred in 1847.
  • There are many variants of the game around the world today, but Chinese Checkers is not one of them. The game has nothing to do with China, but originated in Germany. The game was put on the market in the early 1900’s and was called Chinese Checkers to capitalize on people’ familiarity with checkers and to give the game an oriental flavor, as marketing ploys.

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Source by Alan Beggerow

Christopher Columbus and the Arawak

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It was just after midnight on October 12, 1492 that a 40-ish Christopher Columbus set foot in the America’s on behalf of Ferdinand and Isabella, the king and queen of Spain. On his way to the Indies, Columbus instead ran into the Bahaman island of San Salvador. Still, convinced he had indeed landed in the Indies, Columbus referred to the indigenous people that lived there as Indians. These people were actually the Arawaks and the Caribs. There are many stories surrounding Columbus’ notoriety as the discoverer of the Americas, however it is currently understood that Columbus was in fact not the first explorer to venture near these continents. Other seafaring men of his time were credited with making the journey before him as were the Vikings who, historians have discovered, were there long before the rest of the Europeans had even thought to venture past their own shores.

Columbus had a favorable impression of the Arawaks on his first visit. In true conquistador fashion, Columbus evaluated the Arawak in regard to their value to him and his royal sponsors. He responded to the innocent welcome of the Arawak who rushed to greet their new guests with an inspection and evaluation of their value and not by returning their apparently gracious welcome.

Since Columbus’ main goal on his expeditions was to return to Spain with ships laden with gold and spices, as was the goal of any exploration of the era, he was under extraordinary pressure to do so. And, as he was convinced that he had indeed reached the Indies, he was certain to be able to take such a rich bounty back to present to Ferdinand and Isabella. However, Columbus and his crew soon discovered that there was no treasure to be had in the new land other than its people. Therefore, Columbus proceeded to return the friendly gestures of the Arawak by gathering 1500 men, women, and children from which to select the best candidates for transport as slaves back to Spain. Of the 1500 Arawaks, 500 were selected as appropriate gifts for the Spanish court, but only 300 of them survived the voyage back to Spain. Two hundred of the peaceful Arawaks of San Salvadore perished due to sickness and disease. Once Columbus unloaded his human prizes in Spain, they were sold to the highest bidder.

Back on San Salvadore, the Spaniards continued their assault on the Arawaks by forcing them to work on plantation like estates. The Arawaks, obviously not satisfied with this arrangement attempted a resistance but although they significantly outnumbered the invaders, they were outgunned by the Spaniards who had a distinct advantage with their armor, muskets, horses, and swords. The treatment of the Arawaks became even more atrocious after their unsuccessful revolt with the Spaniards using them as litters to carry their Spanish conquerors from place to place and maiming and killing them at random.

It has been noted by some historians that Columbus had initially favored the Arawaks but that they fell from favor when they apparently dined on several of their Spanish invaders. These researchers insist that Columbus and the Arawaks had originally enjoyed a mutually beneficial relationship with Columbus noting the Arawak’s natural intelligence, looks, and openness. However, much of the documentation reviewed indicates that Columbus did indeed view the indigenous people of San Salvadore as potential slaves and that it was the Caribs, and not the Arawaks that were a cannibalistic tribe. Although Columbus most certainly did evaluate the Arawak for their intelligence, beauty, and sturdiness, he was surely doing so, not as much out of admiration for the people themselves, but because he needed to assess their suitability as slaves and their ability to please Ferdinand and Isabella and the Spanish court.

Unlike their European conquerors, the Arawak have no written record of the Spanish atrocities inflicted on them, but historians has pieced together what they believe to be an accurate accounting from the sources left behind by Christopher Columbus himself and other European settlers. Certainly, had the Arawak people known what fate would befall them, they, nor their island neighbors, would surely never have greeted the Spanish invaders with such guileless wonder. History has repeated similar episodes of apparent genocide throughout the ages and the first contact of Columbus and his men with the Arawak people was undoubtedly not the first, nor will it be the last, instance of such treatment of an indigenous population.

Christopher Columbus himself never set foot in North America, but the Spanish, French, and British conquerors of North America repeated this scene when they encountered the indigenous people of that land also. Columbus and the Spanish slave trade were almost successful in completely wiping out the Arawak population in the Bahamas. As these people were viewed as a resource to be used at the disposal of the Spanish people, the Arawak were viewed with no more regard than a head of cattle or a favorite horse. When the resource was exhausted, the Spaniards simply drew from another source as was their perceived right and the perceived right of any national conqueror.

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Source by Rebecca Stigall

Sweet Corn Fritters Are a Tasty Breakfast, Lunch, Or Dinner

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Corn has existed for centuries. When the pilgrims reached the New England coast in 1620 the flour they brought with them had spoiled. Fortunately, the Indians taught the pilgrims how to grow and grind corn and these skills helped them to survive. Many historic corn recipes have survived as well and each region of the US seems to have its favorite.

In the South it is hushpuppies. In the North it is johnnycakes. In the Southwest it is tortillas. Fritters were also popular with chuckwagon cooks. The batter was easy to make on the trail and the fritters were fried in a cast iron skillet or kettle.

Corn fritters used to be a mainstay of Southern cuisine. Then, for some unknown reason, their popularity faded. But this historic recipe is making a comeback. Today, fritters are a popular side dish and may contain zucchini, green onions cilantro and and chiles. You can even find recipes for Southeast Asian fritters with soy sauce on the Internet.

Some recipes call for meat. In the first “Joy of Cooking” cookbook, authors Irma s. Rombauer and Marion Rombauer Becker include a recipe for corn and ham fritters. Baking powder and stiffly-beaten egg whites make the fritters rise. According to the authors, the liquid (water or milk) should be added quickly to the dry ingredients and you should avoid over-mixing.

The Betty Crocker website has posted a recipe for spicy corn fritters made with the original Bisquick mix, water, canned corn, and canned chiles. But the recipe I like best is from the “Good Housekeeping Cookbook,” a wedding gift my husband and I received decades ago. It makes puffy, golden fritters which are served with maple syrup. Add crispy bacon, ham, or link sausage, fresh fruit and you have a meal.

I have changed the recipe a bit. Instead of whole milk, I use skim, and have added sugar for sweetness. Here is the makeover version of the original recipe.

Ingredients

1 cup pre-sifted regular flour

1 teaspoon baking powder

1 teaspoon low sodium salt

2 tablespoons sugar (or Splenda blend)

2 large eggs, room temperature

1/4 cup skim milk

2 tablespoons canola oil

2 1/2 cups whole kernel corn (drained canned corn or corn cut from the cob)

Frying oil (canola or peanut)

Method

In a large bowl, whisk the flour, baking powder, salt and sugar together. In a small bowl, beat eggs, milk and salad oil. Add corn. Whisk the dry ingredients into the wet, making sure the corn is evenly distributed. Pour oil into a cast iron or electric skillet. Heat oil until it reaches 365 degrees. Drop tablespoons of batter into the oil (do not crowd the pan) and shallow fry until golden brown. Drain on paper towels. Serve immediately with warm maple syrup or sugar-free syrup. Makes about 6 servings.

Copyright 2010 by Harriet Hodgson

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Source by Harriet Hodgson

Writing Contests – 10 Tips and Advantages For Participating in a Writing Contest

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Are you a beginning writer or an experienced author and want to establish yourself as an authority expert in your field of knowledge?

When you enter a writing contest, you gain experience, and hopefully, you get feedback on your writing.

If you choose to enter a writing contest, there are many advantages that a writing competition can offer you. Let’s look at 10 tips and advantages that will help your writing career soar, while bringing attention to your name, and helping you earn extra cash, perks, or bonuses in the process.

1. Entering a writing contest gets your creative juices flowing.

Good creative writing contests have a defined topic or theme that helps a writer focus on what needs to be written. Some writers need a creative boost to encourage them to sit down and write.

2. When you enter a writing contest, you improve your ability to set a deadline and deliver the content on schedule.

One of the biggest challenges a new writer faces is dedicating the time to their own writing projects. When a writer pays money to enter a writing contest, that writer is more apt to create the document and submit it to a contest.

3. Getting recognized for your writing establishes you as an authority figure, and gives you exposure.

When you win, place, or receive an Honorable Mention in a writing contest, that “win” gives you recognition in the industry, and a definite forward push in the resume department where you can brag about your well-earned accomplishments.

4. Writing contests challenge you to believe in yourself and the writing skills that you possess.

When you listen to that inner voice that urges you to move forward with your writing career, that challenge is one of the best gifts you can give yourself.

5. Many writing contests will post a list of the top 10 or 20 honorable mentions, which gets your name out there for possible new revenue streams.

Regardless if a writing contest charges a fee or not, the advantage is writing the piece, submitting it, and winning…even if it’s just a credit to your name that you entered the contest and did better than the majority of writers. You’ve achieved a name for yourself, and you can make money when people know you for your writing or the topics you write about.

6. When you follow the contest guidelines, rules, and regulations, you have a 90 percent better chance to win than most of the entrants.

This aspect alone is one of the top 10 reasons why writers’ submissions are rejected in a writing contest. What is so difficult about following the rules, or creating a checklist for the items you must do before submitting your entry?

7. When placing in the top 3 positions in any writing competition, you have a valuable edge and credential that you can add to your writing resume.

Do you remember when you were in grade school and you did something so remarkable that your teacher praised you in front of the entire class? Entering a writing contest and winning it is like being in grade school…except that you can earn money from winning a contest, and you’ve earned another selling point to add to your resume.

8. Entering a writing contest opens the doors for more cash and writing assignments.

Let’s face it; when you enter a writing competition, you can win cash, valuable prizes, and even paid writing assignments, based on your contest entry. Does it get any easier than that?

9. Entering a writing contest boosts your self-confidence, which encourages you to write more pages.

It’s not a question of whether you won or didn’t win a writing contest. The point is that you entered the contest, you paid your fee, and you wrote your entry. Why is that important? Entering a writing contest and actually completing everything on the checklist helps to boost your morale. If nothing else, you now know that you have the skills and motivation to write more articles, enter more contests, or write your book.

10. When you enter a writing contest and win one of the top 3 prizes, you can easily earn cash or publishing prizes that could launch your writing career.

The cold hard truth is that if you don’t get recommended by someone, or put your writing out there for the world to read, or attempt to enter any contests, no one will find you. However, by just entering one great writing contest you could earn cash, valuable services, prizes, and writing assignments that you never dreamed possible.

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Source by Candace Sinclair

Why You Should Use Bullets in Your Writing

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One of my favourite strategies for dealing with wordy copy is bullets. They are just like real bullets. Okay, maybe not just like them. But they’re fast, and effective.

Bullets can break down a long sentence-a fabulous option for the brevity-challenged writer. But there are also benefits to the reader. Bullets help break up the page. They make content more “readable.” In many ways, they can prevent your target audience’s eyes from glazing over.

Consider the following paragraph:

Caring for a dying cancer patient is part of a palliative approach when the healthcare team determines that a cancer is unlikely to be cured. The goal is to improve quality of life. This includes: managing physical symptoms such as pain, meeting emotional needs such as anxiety and depression, addressing spiritual needs, and supporting caregivers.

Now apply the “bullet treatment” to it:

Caring for a dying cancer patient is part of a palliative approach when the healthcare team determines that a cancer is unlikely to be cured. The goal is to improve quality of life. This includes:

– managing physical symptoms such as pain;

– meeting emotional needs such as anxiety and depression;

– addressing spiritual needs; and

– supporting caregivers.

Looks better, doesn’t it?

Bullets are especially appealing to people who “scan.” You know who they are: they would prefer to scan quickly through the text, rather than to focus on every single word. With bullets, you have a higher probability of getting them to recall some of your key messages.

I’m not saying every single list has to be bulleted; however, it is a great “tool” for getting your point across in just about any kind of communication vehicle-in particular, websites and sales materials.

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Source by Lindsey McCaffrey

Understanding Your Placement in a World of Unnecessary Compartmentalization

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Understanding your placement in a world of many compartments! So many times, as individuals we find ourselves in a place of feeling compartmentalized, not even by our own doing. The murmurs we hear as we walk across a room, or in passing a group of family, or a group of supposed-friends, whispering and comparing themselves to others. Everyone is individual, no two people excel, at the same time, in everything. There is enough abundance on the planet for everyone. Not a single person, on the planet can take away the talent or skill from another person. JEALOUSY IS A FALLACY- CREATED BY UNPLANNED ACTION, UNKNOWN FACTS, OR FOR THE LACK OF WILL TO PRACTICE AND HONE YOUR OWN CHOICE OF SKILLS OR TALENTS, LACK OF PATIENCE, PURPOSE, OR THROUGH IMMATURE IDEALS. Anyone on the planet can be happy and does not need to compartmentalize another person to feel better about himself!

Ever wonder where they get the ideas? Why it is that they feel the need to verbalize, whether audible to you or not; their anxiety about the difference in your life from theirs? Or, have they come to trying to compartmentalize your ideas, philosophies, or even your way of living your life? SO many times, other peoples perception of their own lives clouds their judgments OF the innocent others, and they feel the need to compartmentalize people that they cannot either accept or understand.

Issues, from another persons childhood, have nothing to do with you, it’s their issue that they are trying to cloud, or to mask. Perhaps its their anxiety over some kind of talent, of their own making; their own advantage, or achievement that brings them anxiety for keeping their own talent hidden, dormant or unattended. Through analyzing or criticizing the differences that they find in me and in you, they only bring themselves to fit into a compartment similar to a messy dresser drawer with talents and skills that are unused or sadly not manifested- they need to utilize their own skill set bringing them their own success and leaving us alone!

Usually kids that are really into school are wanting to be in the front row of the lesson, or in closest proximity to the teacher. Fellow students can not understand that; I can not understand how they would not want to sit close to a teacher, mentor or leader. There is a sadness in anyone that does not want to learn.

That sadness is a mask; not the truth; YOU and me and anyone else is Brilliant; EVERYONE else around you CAN see that; WHY can’t you let that thought design POSITIVE ENERGY to express to YOURSELF? Again tell yourself how wonderful you truly are; IF NOT I WILL? YOU are amazing and beautiful; to all family, friends and future friends; let’s get-on with the business of expressing your brilliance to the WORLD!”

Learning peace; to love myself; no more responses to questions about the topic of judgement, by close friends and immediate family: your life is nobody’s business; just as the life of others is their own business; NO ONE’S LIFE IS MY CONCERN TO SPEAK OR COMMENT ABOUT; UNLESS I OFFER COMPLIMENTS FOR ALL OF THE GOOD THINGS THAT THEY REFLECT AND THAT I SEE AND ADMIRE. No one’s life decisions, or living is MINE TO JUDGE EITHER.

Guess there’s a lot of truth in the old adage,”LIVE AND LET LIVE IN PEACE, DO UNTO OTHERS AS YOU WOULD HAVE THEM DO AND SAY UNTO YOU!”

Enough of my ranting, and belly-aching, being on a spiritual journey to enligh-TEN-MENT is oftentimes a lonely journey… The day that you arrive to your graduation point and place in time; CALL ME; I’LL come to your festive occasion and celebrate your ENLIGHTENMENT DEGREE and HOPEFULLY I WILL BE WAITING TO RECEIVE MY ENLIGHTENED DIPLOMA AT THE SAME TIME AS YOU!

Have a great day!

I enjoy learning from you and from others offering me knowledge continuously!

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Source by Lorie Ann Jermoune

Similarity Between Writing a 5 Paragraph Essay and an Article

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The similarities between a five paragraph essay and an article are quite numerous but for the reason of this discussion just the relevant ones will be picked and discussed. An article is a piece of writing mostly nonfiction about the contemporary happenings in the society. It comes in various sizes of length and is usually for the newspaper, magazine, journals or books of reference.

A five paragraph essay is an essay that has all the ideas written and organized in five paragraphs. The essay is usually a prose and can be descriptive, argumentative, expository, imaginative, or analytical in nature, and usually from a personal view point. The similarities between writing a five paragraph essay and an article is that first an article contains paragraphs and an article may be five paragraphed. This simply means that both kinds of writing have their ideas developed sequentially in paragraphs following a logical sense of development of the idea and topic of discussion.

Another similarity is that both kinds of writings do not have address of both the writer and the person being written to in the case of an article. Since an article is for publication, it is normally assumed that it carries an address of the writer and the publisher, but that is only obtainable in letters. The same applies for an essay. Essays are mainly for students and for academic purposes; it does not require an address of the writer.

In addition to that, there are no salutations in both kinds of writing. There is no need for a “dear sir or ma” in a five paragraph essay nor in an article. The same goes for a complimentary conclusion. Hence the need for a “yours faithfully” is overruled in both kind of writing.

Both kinds of writing could have the same nature depending on the topic of discussion. That is they could both be descriptive, narrative, expository as the case maybe. An article as well as a five paragraph essay would have information to offer the reader, and could criticize an issue or try to persuade the reader with ideas on a particular issue.

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Source by John Halas

A Comparison of Pens – Choosing a Ballpoint, Rollerball or Fountain Pen

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Anybody who’s spent any length of time actually hand-writing something has a favorite type of pen, and they all have discriminating preference. One person may only want to write with a retractable medium-point ballpoint pen with blue ink, whereas another can’t go without her extra fine-point rollerball black ink pen with a cap.

There are three major kinds of pens: rollerball, ballpoint, and fountain. All three pens have advantages and disadvantages unique to their design, so the perfect pen for you really depends on what you want out of your pen. Here are the pros and cons for each type of pen, to help you in your decision of which to buy.

Ballpoint pens: The utilitarian

Ballpoint pens are everywhere. In 2005, Bic sold its hundred billionth ballpoint pen, to give you an idea of how many there are circling the globe. The ink ballpoint pens use also lasts a long time, doesn’t bleed through paper, and dries quickly enough that it resists smudging. You also don’t have to worry as much about a ballpoint pen leaking ink over your shirts or pants, unless you run it through the washing machine.

Though ballpoint pens are typically very simple and practical, it is possible to find some that are a little more sophisticated than average. Some major brands, like Graf von Faber Castell, create ballpoint and rollerball pens in the same lines as their fountain pens, so you can get elegance and utility in the same pen.

The cons of ballpoint pens are that there’s a limit to the places they can write. They can’t write on wet or oily surfaces, and neither can they write upside down or up against a wall. Ballpoints also have fewer ink colors available, as opposed to fountain pens and rollerballs, because of the consistency of the ink. They also require more pressure to write cleanly, so if you’re going to be writing a lot, be prepared for hand strain.

Fountain pens: The classic

Smooth, elegant, timeless: all these are words to describe the simple, stylish fountain pen. While ballpoint pens are more widespread today, fountain pens have been around for centuries. The ink flow is smooth and even and requires almost no pressure in order to produce clean, legible writing. People who have arthritis or other hand problems may find fountain pens easier to use than ballpoint. Plus, a single fountain pen can use a variety of colors, and all you have to do is change out the ink.

Fountain pens also imply sophistication. They’re very useful for professional art, penmanship and calligraphy, and their use associates them with class, status and elegance. Good quality fountain pens are built to last; if used correctly, they can outlive their owners several times over. Many major pen brands create pens that are virtually works of art themselves. For example, Graf von Faber Castell offers Classic Pernambuco, a line of pens that are made from the same wood used to craft violins.

For all their advantages, fountain pens are typically not suited for convenience and daily use. Many people may not want to deal with the hassle of changing out ink. Fountain pens require a little more care than ballpoint pens or rollerballs, and if something goes wrong with them, you usually have to spend some time figuring it out as opposed to tossing it and getting a new one.

Rollerball pens: The compromise

Rollerball pens combine the everyday practicality of a ballpoint with the smooth, even ink flow of a fountain pen. Like fountain pens, they have a greater variety of colors and require little pressure to write cleanly. Like ballpoint pens, they’re convenient for everyday use.

Plus, rollerball pens come with either liquid ink or gel ink. The brighter colors of gel ink show up on darker paper, so if you’ve got an art or scrapbooking project, a rollerball pen may be the way to go.

The disadvantages of a rollerball are mostly ink-related. The ink is dispensed through the tip more quickly, meaning that it won’t last as long as a ballpoint pen. Though the ink is easier to read, it also seeps through paper, making your writing illegible should you write on both sides of the sheet. Also, gel inks don’t flow as readily as liquid inks, which means you could get a lot of blobs or skipping while you’re writing with them.

Choose your pen wisely

With all the digital technology of today, it may seem that pens are merely a relic of the past. Why write it out when you have a computer to do the work for you?

But pens have an advantage that computers do not, beyond their sleek sophistication. They give you connection: both physical and personal connection to the words that you’re writing, as well as a connection to all the writers in the past that scribed their works by hand.

Where everybody’s “words” look the same on computers, with pens each letter is uniquely yours, committed to paper in your handwriting. Choose the pen that works for you, and enjoy a new level of connection with everything you write.

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Source by Frank Mazza

Sexual Hauntings 2 – How To Get Rid Of An Incubus Or Succubus

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Are you experiencing strange sexual assaults at night, in your bed, from an unseen force? Are you becoming scared to go to bed now for fear of a recurrence of these horrible attacks? If so, then it is a strong possibility that you have either an incubus (if you’re female) or a succubus (if you’re male) haunting your house. You therefore need to take urgent steps to get rid of this entity. Divine Deliverance and Spiritual Warfare are the only weapons that can be employed to stop the incubus and succubus.

But how do you actually get rid of such a formidable and frightening demon completely?

Well, the first thing you need to do is to have a good look around your house to see if you have any items or ornaments relating to the occult or witchcraft. You need to pinpoint exactly which items you have bought recently which may have sparked off these paranormal activities. There have been many cases in history where the victim of an incubus or succubus attack has brought into their home, or been given, an object – an item that may have been cursed, or even been used in actual black magic rituals – totally unaware that that object may be carrying dark, malevolent powers. And if you think you have found the likely source of your hauntings, then the best advice you could take would be to get rid of that object immediately.

If, however, there are no possessions in your home which you could reasonably attribute to paranormal activity, then your next step would be to research the history of your home – that is, of course, if you have not long moved into the property and have only just started to experience these night demon attacks. You need to find out everything you can about the place, either from official records or by making enquiries within the neighbourhood: who were the previous residents, did they too suffer similar sexual assaults from demonic entities, and so on.

Once you have solid proof that you do indeed have an incubus or succubus haunting your home, you can then take the necessary steps towards driving out the entity for good. If you a Christian, you must use all your faith to make you strong, and call on the power of The Holy Spirit and Jesus Christ – with the assistance of a priest or a similar spiritual leader – to command this evil entity to depart, to leave you alone in peace and never bother you again. As powerful and threatening as the incubus and succubus can be, it is certainly not indestructible, and can quite easily be vanquished, with the help of God and prayer, as easily as Satan himself can be.

If you are not a Christian, then there are alternative methods you can employ to expel your sex demon: aura cleansing with an experienced practitioner, a process which involves “amputating” the cord that ties the entity to you repeatedly; Wiccan rites, which are good for charging the air with positive energy and eliminating the negative energy; and even psychic energy employed by yourself, under the guidance of an experienced medium or psychic, which involves you summoning up all your will power and mental strength to deny the entity all access to both your body and your mind, with a view to eventually causing it to leave your home completely.

Incubi and Sucubi can not force sexual intercourse on an unwilling person strong enough to resist them. They can also be repelled by certain powerful amulets, including the Quabbalah amulet containing the Holy Angelic names Sanvi, Sansanvi Semnageolf.

So next time you are lying in bed and are suddenly awoken, in the middle of the night, by a cold breath on your cheek, a lustfully wandering hand, or the pressure of an unseen body pinning you down to the mattress, please do not feel too afraid, for given the methods of protection I have highlighted, then you can rest assured that this incubus or succubus assault on your body will be a – mercifully – transient one.

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Source by Alan Toner

History of the Chinese Hand Held Fan

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The first Chinese fans were nothing more than bird feathers or large leaves. Tradition holds that King Wu of the Zhou Dynasty in the 11th century B.C. invented the Chinese hand-held fan, and the oldest known Chinese hand held fan was found in China in 1982 and is approximately 2,300 years old. The earliest half-moon fans were constructed of silk wrapped around bamboo spokes that were arranged in a semi-circle. Fans were used only by the members of the royal court for many centuries, only becoming available to the general public during the Han Dynasty, 206 B.C. – 220 A.D. By the time of the Jin Dynasty, 317-420 A.D., so many fans were being made that the emperor halted the use of silk in their manufacture because silk producers could not keep up.

While the Chinese are credited with the invention of the half-moon hand held fan, these first fans did not fold like modern ones do. The folding half-moon fan was brought to China in the 11th century A.D. from Japan. Today Chinese fans are still made from the traditional bamboo and silk materials, and also of paper, wood, bone, palm tree leaves and other materials.

During the 5th century A.D. the moon fan, or round fan became very popular. Young ladies, especially those inside the imperial palace were very fond of these. These round fans later took on other shapes also, such as oval. The ancient Chinese were a very artistic culture. Everyday items such as fans were valued not only for their functionality, but by their beauty. Fan painting and decoration are but one example of this. There has been a revival of the ancient art form of the Chinese Hand Held Fan. Thy are things of beauty that can add to the decor of any home.

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Source by Alan Beggerow