The Disputed Authorship of Ephesians

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INTRODUCTION

The authenticity of Ephesians as a genuinely Pauline epistle has been doubted especially since the time of the Dutch Humanist Erasmus in the sixteenth century. Several schools of thoughts exist today in connection with the authorship in Ephesians. Barth (1974) identifies four such options. Some scholars accept Paul as the author. Others see him as responsible for an original manuscript that has been augmented by an editor. A third set – Moffatt, Goodspeed, Dibelius etc. – rejects Pauline authorship and the fourth thinks there is not enough evidence to decide. Gabel, Wheeler and York observe in their discussion on the canon of letters that Ephesians is categorized as a disputed letter that is “almost certainly not by Paul” (1996, 237). Scholars “have tried to explain this letter as the writing of a student and admirer of Paul’s, bringing the apostle’s gospel to his own later generation” (Turner 1984, 1222). Some conclude that it is most reasonable to consider it as deuteron-Pauline, that is, in the tradition of Paul but not written by him. While I recognize the strength of the other views, I accept (with supportive evidence) the traditional view that classifies Ephesians as an authentic Pauline letter.

ARGUMENTS AGAINST PAULINE AUTHORSHIP

Rhein (1974) asserts that “Ephesians is thought to be spurious by many” (264). His argument is that the purpose and impersonal tone are difficult to explain if it is attributed to Paul.

Dating

Some see the Ephesians as an early Catholic writing and that there is an un-Pauline interest in various orders of ministry. Rhein (1974) also rejects Paul’s authorship on the basis of dating. He observes that “the subject matter indicates a later date than its companions. Christ is no longer the lone foundation of the Church” (268). He asserts that the apostles have taken his place (2:20-22), heretical sects have had time to make their appearance (4:14), and the church itself is now regarded as a means of revelation.

Language

Some doubt Pauline authorship since a number of words in Ephesians cannot be found in other Pauline writings (Drane 1986). Examples include aswtia (wantonness) and politeia (citizenship/commonwealth). Others include some prominent features such as the references to ‘the heavenly world’ (Eph. 1:3; 1:20; 2:6; 3:10; 6:12). Guthrie (1965) admits that “the style (in Ephesians) is certainly different from the other nine undisputed Pauline epistles and this has seemed to some to weigh against Pauline authorship” (483).

Style

Drane (1986) observes that “the way Ephesians is put together is also distinctive. Instead of the unplanned – and largely unrestrained- language of the other letters, Ephesians moves from one theme to another in more sedate fashion” (346).

Relationship with Colossians

Drane (1986) observes that some scholars view Colossians as the original letter which was subsequently copied and adapted by the later author of Ephesians who cannot be Paul. Colossians is usually considered to be a genuine Pauline letter, and Ephesians is thought to be the work of an imitator who used Colossians for some of his ideas.

Doctrine and theology

Drane (1986) also comments on the fact the Ephesians seems to reflect concerns that were especially typical of church life later than the time of Paul. Examples cited include the use of the term ‘church’, apparent absence of any reference to the parousia of Jesus, and to the theme ‘justification of faith’. Furthermore, it is observed that believers are built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets (2:20), whereas Paul sees Christ as the one foundation (I Cor. 3:11). Some believe that these are really in contradiction, for “in 2:20, Christ is ‘the chief cornerstone’, which surely accords with the passage in I Corinthians. Others note that in Ephesians ekklhsia always refers to the universal church, while Paul normally uses the word for the local congregation” (Carson, Moo and Morris 1992, 307). It is noted that “further differences are claimed to appear in Paul’s Christology in this Epistle” (Guthrie 1965, 489). Acts attributed to God in the other epistles are attributed to Christ in Ephesians. Ephesians 2:16 (where reconciliation is described as the work of Christ) is compared with Colossians 1:20 and 2:13-14. Another example is Ephesians 4:11, where Christ is paid to appoint officials in the Church as compared with I Corinthians 7:28.

Possible authors

Barnett (1946) proposed that Onesimus prospered so well in Christian service that he later became Bishop of Ephesus and believed that he wrote Ephesians. Miller and Miller (1973) comments on Goodspeed and Mitten’s submission that the likely authors are Onesimus (Col. 4:9) and Tychicus (Col. 4:7); Eph. 6:21) respectively. If Paul was in prison, Holding (2003) argued, then he was probably in no condition or had no ability to do significant cross-checking, and would give his scribe considerable latitude in composition, indicating only major points to be developed – if indeed it was someone he trusted. On this account, he further argues, and given other factors, Timothy is a likely candidate. The issue is that “there has been a question whether Paul himself wrote it or one of his disciples after his death” (Chamberlin and Feldman 1950, 1111).

ARGUMENTS FOR PAULINE AUTHORSHIP

My conviction of Pauline authorship is in consonance with the following supportive evidence.

Doctrine and theology

Drane (1986) observes that “whatever we conclude about the person who actually wrote the words down, we should certainly not miss the weakness of the other arguments put forward against Paul’s authorship” (346). He dismisses the close relationship as proving nothing since a modern author writing about theology will quite base on book on something that has been written – and Paul had certainly done this before. Furthermore, nothing in Ephesians actually contradicts previous statements by Paul, and much is a logical development of things he had said elsewhere. The parousia is not mentioned in Ephesians, but it is not mentioned in Romans either. According to Wallace (2003), “the case is quite similar to the relation of Galatians to Romans: the first, an occasional letter, is less developed theologically; the second, a more reflective letter, is more developed” (3). Both the time when written and the reason for writing shape Paul’s style and theological statements.

Dating

Gundry (1981) firmly believes that Paul must have written Ephesians and Colossians at approximately the same time because the subject matter in the two epistles is quite similar. He asserts that “Tychirus must therefore have carried both letters at once. (Colossae was about one hundred miles east of Ephesus)” (294). Commenting on the view that the reference to “the holy apostles and prophets” (Eph. 3:5; cf. 2:20; 4:11) indicates that the writer belonged to the second generation, Thiessen (1955) argues that “this cannot be, for the writer includes himself among the ‘holy ones (saints) (3:8)'” (241).

Language

Commenting on the argument that synonyms are used instead of Paul’s usual words and that more words are used in a new sense, Thiessen (1955) argues that the criticism is strange and doubtful. He continues, “besides, is a man always obliged to use a word in the same sense unless he does not care about losing his identity?” (241). He attributes the absence of personal greetings in the last chapter due to the encyclical character of the epistle and observes that the reference to the Church, rather than to some local church or churches, is likewise in harmony with the destination of the letter. Responding to the objection that there are forty-two words in Ephesians not found in other Pauline writings, McCain (1996) observes that “this is about the same percentage of unique words found in other Pauline writings” (249). Carson, Moo and Moris (1992) quote Cadbury’s forceful and convincing argument: “which is more likely – that an imitator of Paul in the first century composed a writing ninety or ninety-five percent in accordance with Paul’s style or that Paul himself wrote a letter diverging five or ten per cent from his usual style?” (306). Even if the style may be different from Paul’s usual manner of writing, Guthrie (1965) argues that “it may, in fact, be regarded as evidence of Paul’s versatility” (493).

Relationship with Colossians

Scholars have argued that the same writer could not have produced Colossians and Ephesians and that the latter is the work of an imitator. Carson, Moo and Morris (1992) dismiss this argument as unconvincing for they seem to support the view that “the same man wrote Colossians and Ephesians a little later, with many of the same thoughts running through his head and with a more general application of the ideas he had so recently expressed” (308).

Relationship with I Peter

Thiessen (1955) argues that the similarities in the Epistle to the Ephesians and in I Peter do not disprove the Pauline authorship of Ephesians. He notes that “if there is any dependence between the two writers, it is more likely that Peter borrowed from Paul than that Paul borrowed from Peter” (241).

Internal evidence

Among other things, “the writer twice calls himself Paul” (Eph. 1:1; 3:1). The epistle is written after the Pauline pattern, beginning with greetings and thanksgiving, leading on to a doctrinal discussion, and concluding with practical exhortations and personal matters” (Theissen 1955, 240).

External evidence

Ephesians had been in wide circulation from the early days and its authenticity does not seem to be questioned. From all indications “it was accepted by Marcion (as the letter to the Laodiceans); it is the Marcion (as the letter to the Laodiceans); it is in the Muratorian Canon and was used by heretics as well as the orthodox. No one seems to have queried Pauline authorship” (Carson, Moo and Morris 1992, 306).

CONCLUSION

To echo my thesis statement in the introduction, I endorse the argument that “from all this, we conclude that there are no insurmountable obstacles to the traditional view of the Pauline authorship of this Epistle” (Theissen 1955, 241). In other words, “when all the objections are carefully considered it will be seen that the weight of evidence is inadequate to overthrow the overwhelming attestation to Pauline authorship, and the Epistle’s own claims” (Guthrie 1965, 507). Bruce (1961) logically defends Pauline authorship in an indirect but forceful argument:

If Epistle of the Ephesians was not written directly by Paul, but by one of his disciples in the Apostle’s name, then its author was the greatest Paulinist of all time – a disciple who assimilated

his master’s thought more thoroughly than anyone else ever did. The man who could write

Ephesians must have been the Apostle’s equal, if not his superior, in mental stature and spiritual insight (11).

In spite of the fact that pseudonymity is regarded in modern scholarship to have been an established practice among the early Christians, the advocates of the traditional view (the researcher included) are entitled to emphasize the self-testimony of the Epistle as supportive evidence for their position “until some satisfactory explanation is found which accounts for the universal acceptance of the Epistle at its face value” (Guthrie 1965, 507).

CONCLUSION:

Barnett, A.E. 1946. The New Testament: Its Making and Meaning.

New York: Abington-Cokesbury Press.

Barth, M. 1974. Ephesians.

New York: Doubleday.

Carson, D.A., Douglas J. Moo and Leon Morris. 1992. An Introduction to the New Testament.

Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House.

Chamberlain, R.B. and H. Feldman. 1950. The Dartmouth Bible.

Boston: Hougton Mifflin Co.

Gabel, J.B., C.B. Wheeler and A.D. York. 1996. The Bible as Literature: An Introduction. 3rd ed.

New York: Oxford University Press.

Gundry, R.H. 1981. A Survey of the New Testament.

Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House.

Guthrie, Donald. 1965. New Testament Introduction.

Downers Grove, Illinois: Inter-Varsity Press.

Holding, J.P. 2003. Wrote Wrote Ephesians?” Available [Online]:

[http://www.tektonics.org/ephauth.html]. 20th August 2003.

McCain, D. 1996. Notes on New Testament Introduction.

Jos: African Textbooks.

Miller, M.S. and J.L. Miller. 1973. Harper’s Bible Dictionary.

New York: Harper and Row Publishers.

Rhein, F.B. 1974. Understanding to the New Testament.

Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing House.

Turner, M. 1984. Ephesians. In New Bible Commentary. 21st century ed., 1222-12244.

Leicester: Inter Varsity Press.

Wallace, D.B. 2003. Ephesians:Introduction, Argument and Outline.

Available [Online]: http://www.bible.org/docs/soapbox/ephotl.htm. 19th August 2003.

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Source by Oliver Harding

General Tools 380B Two-Point Scriber

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Creative Writing: How Long Should Your Novel Be?

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The length of a novel should depend on two things, and two things only:

1) It should be long enough to qualify as a novel; and

2) It should be just long enough to tell your story.

Too many authors try to stretch their novels into 200,000-word epics, only to bore their readers to tears. Others try to get the entire story over with in 50,000 words, leaving out valuable information. A novel should be just long enough to tell your story, but long enough so that all of the details are included.

Even the shortest novels, however, should be at least 50,000 words. Any shorter than that, and the novel becomes a novella. Anything less than 10,000 words is a short story. Although there really are no set “rules” for length of a manuscript, 50,0000-150,000 words is a safe bet. If your novel is more than 150,000 words, you might consider splitting it into two parts, creating a sequel.

That said, there are other factors which can influence the length of your novel. Pacing, characters and action are just a few, combined with the complexity of the subject matter. For example, in Tom Clancy’s novels, he has to explain the complicated military jargon as well as the construction of planes and tanks. Therefore, his novels are much longer than 150,000 words. The same could be said for Jurassic Park, which uses in-depth scientific explanations.

Some authors choose to outline their plots before they begin writing, and using this technique, they can usually tell how long their novel will be before they even sit down to write. I never use an outline – I prefer to wing it – so the length usually comes as a surprise to me once I’ve finished. I judge the pace of the novel as I write, and I go over it chapter-by-chapter to make sure that I’ve written each scene as concisely and briefly as possible while still delivering the full effect.

For beginning writers, your best bet is to just continue writing until you get a feel for length. Write short stories to practice telling a story in fewer words and work on condensing sentences into their purest form. It’s an art – that, I’ll admit – but once you have a sense of your own abilities as a writer, it will be second nature.

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American Literary Classics – The Transcendentalists: Teaching Henry David Thoreau – Botanist, Environmentalist & Journalist

American Literary Classics - The Transcendentalists: Teaching Henry David Thoreau - Botanist, Environmentalist & Journalist

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The Transcendentalists: Teaching Henry David Thoreau offers students and teachers a first of its kind introduction to Thoreau. This program presents convenient and essential information for a first introduction to this famous 19th century American philosopher, writer and Intellect. Each chapter features instructional insights by distinguished scholars. Each educator develops essential information about Thoreau’s life and his significant ideas to create a better understanding and appreciation for this nineteenth century American writer. Additionally, individual and chapter class projects are included to help discus and then write about relevant ideas. Transcendentalist scholar and English teacher, Richard H. Baker, introduces classroom strategies for teaching Thoreau relevant for today’s student environment. Employing instructional classroom techniques that have earned him accolades at Noble and Greenough School, Baker draws upon relevant issues in each Chapter to foster discussion, writing and interpretation of Henry David Thoreau who secluded himself from 1845 to 1847 at Walden Pond in Concord, Massachusetts. CHAPTER SEGMENTS: Each Chapter is tailored appropriately for today’s busy class schedule. To recognize the value of Thoreau in a classroom setting, each of the seven Thoreau Chapters opens with specific, relevant and applicable interpretations for today’s student, regardless of age. By demystifying the numerous challenges for understanding Thoreau’s essays, Professor Baker encourages individual responses to important issues, always aware of the difficulty in understanding Thoreau on a first reading.

When sold by Amazon.com, this product is manufactured on demand using DVD-R recordable media. Amazon.com’s standard return policy will apply.



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Writing Tip – Verbs of Utterance

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Josie shook her head, “It will never work.”

“I can’t believe that actually worked,” Ben chuckled.

Miss Gilmore woke them with a shout, “It’s time to get up!”

“What the heck is a verb of utterance?” Maria asked.

In the sentences above, the phrase “Maria asked” would often be referred to as a tag. The phrases “Josie shook her head” and “Ben chuckled” might be referred to as tags, but they should also be referred to as wrong. More precisely, the phrases themselves are fine, but the punctuation setting off those phrases needs fixing. You may see the reason immediately, but such misunderstanding of verbs of utterance in dialogue is probably among the top three mistakes I see in work by new fiction writers–and often by established authors, too.

Sure, I’m talking (in most cases) about the difference between a comma and a period. If you squint you’ve fixed it. But how many times have I said that an aura of professionalism can be the difference, for agents and editors, between wanting to work with you and considering you an amateur? And this is one of those massively easy-to-fix commonplace writing mistakes that can, if peppered throughout a manuscript, scream “amateur.”

Dialogue tags in general should be used with caution; it’s painful to read a long passage of staccato dialogue between two characters in which every quotation mark is followed by “said” or “asked.” Try to use them only when necessary to make the speaker’s identity clear or when they serve a meaningful purpose, in which case “said” and “asked” should rarely appear, unless they’re followed by an adverb you cannot live without (I said emphatically).

When using tags, think as carefully about them as you do the words between the quotation marks. A lot of verbs shouldn’t be used as verbs of utterance, but that doesn’t mean you have a tiny selection to choose from. A character can shout, whisper, bellow, spit, or mutter a sentence… but they can’t chuckle a sentence. (See example two above.) Use that simple test if you’re unsure.

As always, gray areas exist. I say you can’t “chuckle” a sentence, but some perfectly fine writers might get all stubborn on me and insist you can. Another test is simply to look in your dictionary and see if the verb is transitive or intransitive (i.e., whether it takes a direct object or not). Webster’s says “chuckle” is intransitive, so I’m right. Ha ha. Then again, Webster’s says “giggle” can be transitive and, specifically, is a verb of utterance. Why can I giggle a sentence but not chuckle a sentence? No explanation.

But I’m talking mainly about more straightforward examples, such as the first and third ones above. Your character definitely can’t shake her head a sentence. And in the third example, “woke” is the verb and “shout” is a noun. Miss Gilmore didn’t wake her words, she woke people. Scan your manuscript and I guarantee you’ll change at least a few commas to periods, and you will then come across as a more polished, professional writer.

If you want to play around with the language and have your character chuckle a comment, go for it. The grammar police may or may not catch you. But always be aware of how you’re using tags–most writers are so focused on the dialogue itself that they get lazy after that end quote. Think before you ink (hey, I like that) and know why you’re putting that word and that punctuation on the page.

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Rules for Writers with 2016 MLA Update

Rules for Writers with 2016 MLA Update

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THIS TITLE HAS BEEN UPDATED TO REFLECT THE 2016 MLA UPDATES! Our editorial team has updated this text based on content from The MLA Handbook, 8th Edition. Browse our catalog or contact your representative for a full listing of updated titles and packages, or to request a custom ISBN.

When students routinely use their handbook in the course, they see its value, find that it’s a faster way to get answers than search engines like Google, learn to rely on it as a reference, and are more likely to achieve the goals of the course. And when that handbook is Rules for Writers, you can be sure the advice they find is practical and reliable—with help for composing and revising, writing arguments, analyzing texts, using grammar and punctuation correctly, and working with sources. In revising the eighth edition, Nancy Sommers has woven a new emphasis on reading critically throughout the first section of the handbook, introduced advice for analyzing multimodal texts, and added help for public speaking. New practical Writing Guides support students working through college assignments in a variety of genres. And new peer review advice helps students effectively comment on drafts and apply feedback to revisions of their own work. All of these improvements help student writers—but they also save you time and effort. You can draw from Rules for Writers for planning class discussions, conducting in-class workshops, and providing feedback on student work that they can easily apply. Rules for Writers even comes with a complete instructor’s manual, Teaching with Hacker Handbooks, with stepped-out lesson plans to customize and sample assignments, syllabi, and rubrics from your peers.
Rules for Writers with 2016 MLA Update



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The Role of the Press in a Free Society

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A flip through the daily newspaper. A turn of the radio dial. A scan of the Internet. These actions are quick and almost automatic, and the millions across the country who perform them everyday seldom even give them a thought. But the press, particularly, impresses, exerting a far greater impact on people’s lives than they would at first imagine.

“The pivotal role of the four media of mass communications in our society can be revealed by the estimate that approximately 98 percent of our population relies solely on the media of mass communications for 95 percent of their information,” wrote Thomas Elliott Berry in Journalism in America (Hastings House Publishers, 1976, p. 2).

Indeed, radios, television stations, and Internet sites are accessed from morning to night throughout the world and most people find it difficult to begin their day without first consulting the news and the latest developments in newspapers, magazines, and weeklies, all of which provide information about education, current affairs, finance, science, sports, and weather. The press, undeniably, plays an important part of people’s lives, but few realize the value of it in a free society.

Although it is often claimed that it is responsible for observing governmental occurrences and then reporting them in other countries and under different regimes, democracy itself requires the communication role the press plays to the public for it to function.

“Government would be far less perfect without the constant role of critic played by a responsible press,” wrote Thomas Schroth and Allen and Linda Kirschner in their book, Journalism: Readings in the Mass Media (Odyssey Press, 1971, p. 242).

Both an intermediary and integral part of it, the press serves as the voice of the government spoken to the ears of the public.

Government and press are hardly in harmony, however, and can often be considered adversaries.

Although a single constitution created both entities, the press often learns, explains, and exposes what those in government do not necessarily always wish to have uncovered. So essential is this process, however, that Douglas Cater termed it the “fourth branch of government” after the executive, legislative, and judiciary branches. Acting as if it were the fourth leg of a table, the press would render it difficult for the government to function if it were pulled.

Politicians, needless to say, have made considerable effort throughout history to influence what reporters will say about certain affairs and transactions-which, in essence, would nullify their very purpose-but it is mostly the reporter himself, viewing events with a watchful eye, who determines what the public should know. Truthful, accurate, and objective reporting are essential to democracy.

Permitted, for this reason, access to vital information, otherwise private conferences, and interviews with influential figures, from congressmen to the president himself, he records and reports, delivering to his readers.

Time, as an element, often serves as a source of conflict between the press and the government. The latter would prefer an interval during which policy could be resolved before being announced, while the former acts on urgency and does so immediately. Nevertheless, it is this “annoying prying” that enables democracy to work, its communication serving as the link between the people and the government that represents them.

Serving, at times, as critic, the press ensures that that government remains under surveillance, reporting what it learns, whether it be good or bad.

“The government has quite a duty, for the issues must be made plain, the truth clear… ,” wrote Warren K. Agee and Bill D. Moyers in their book, Mass Media in a Free Society (University Press of Kansas, 1969, p. 36). “But the role of the press is no less. As William Allen White said, ‘This nation will survive, this state will prosper, this orderly business of life will go forward if only men can speak in whatever way given to utter what their hearts hold-by voice, by postal card, by letters, or by press.’ Especially by the press.”

As an informative intermediary, the press serves as the communication connection between democracy and the people it represents.

Bibliography

Agee, Warren K., and Moyers, Bill D., eds. Mass Media in a Free Society. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1969.

Berry, Thomas Elliott. Journalism in America. New York: Hastings House Publishers, 1976.

Schroth, Thomas, and Kirschner, Allen and Linda, eds. Journalism: Readings in the Mass Media. New York: Odyssey Press, 1971.

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Source by Robert Waldvogel

Legendary Authors and the Clothes They Wore

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“The most counterintuitive book of the summer thus far…. [Newman’s] surprisingly convincing thesis is that the sartorial choices authors make are deeply connected to the narrative choices they make — or, as Beckett put it, ‘the fabric of language’ they use.” -Vanessa Friedman, The New York Times

Discover the signature sartorial and literary style of fifty men and women of letters, including Maya Angelou; Truman Capote; Colette; Bret Easton Ellis; Allen Ginsberg; Patti Smith; Karl Ove Knausgaard; and David Foster Wallace; in this unique compendium of profiles—packed with eighty black-and-white photographs, excerpts, quotes, and fast facts—that illuminates their impact on modern fashion.

Whether it’s Zadie Smith’s exotic turban, James Joyce’s wire-framed glasses, or Samuel Beckett’s Wallabees, a writer’s attire often reflects the creative and spiritual essence of his or her work. As a non-linear sensibility has come to dominate modern style, curious trendsetters have increasingly found a stimulating muse in writers—many, like Joan Didion, whose personal aesthetic is distinctly “out of fashion.” For decades, Didion has used her work, both her journalism and experimental fiction, as a mirror to reflect her innermost emotions and ideas—an originality that has inspired Millennials, resonated with a new generation of fashion designers and cultural tastemakers, and made Didion, in her eighties, the face of Celine in 2015.

Legendary Authors and the Clothes They Wore examines fifty revered writers—among them Samuel Beckett; Quentin Crisp; Simone de Beauvoir; T.S. Eliot; F. Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald; Malcolm Gladwell; Donna Tartt; John Updike; Oscar Wilde; and Tom Wolfe—whose work and way of dress bears an idiosyncratic stamp influencing culture today. Terry Newman combines illuminating anecdotes about authors and their work, archival photography, first-person quotations from each writer and current designers, little-known facts, and clothing-oriented excerpts that exemplify their original writing style.

Each entry spotlights an author and a signature wardrobe moment that expresses his or her persona, and reveals how it influences the fashion world today. Newman explores how the particular item of clothing or style has contributed to fashion’s lingua franca—delving deeper to appraise its historical trajectory and distinctive effect. Legendary Authors and the Clothes They Wore is an invaluable and engaging look at the writers we love—and why we love what they wear—that is sure to captivate lovers of great literature and sophisticated fashion.

Legendary Authors and the Clothes They Wore



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3 Components Of Writing

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If you keep these 3 components in mind while writing, you will have a more complete story. In general, you are looking at each component representing a section of the work. If you divided the work, whether article or story, into 4 equal sections, then the first component (BEGINNING) will equal about 1/4 of the work. The second component (MIDDLE) will represent 2/4 or 1/2 of the total work. The third component (END) will represent the last 1/4 of the work. Keep in mind, this is just an approximate division; every work will be different.

1 – BEGINNING:

  • The introduction to the work or story.
  • Depending on the topic of the work, this section may be short or long, but will be less than the middle.
  • In non-fiction, the beginning will serve as a “set up” to introduce the reader to the topic and give a brief outline or suggestion of what to expect in the rest of the work.
  • It may be used to tease the reader or to present a view into the characters, setting and plot.

2 – MIDDLE:

  • The exposition of characters, events, action, plot, research and main points of the work. This takes up the majority of the work.
  • In non-fiction, the middle will explain all theories, points, beliefs, facts, history etc. of the topic. This section will explore in great depth each of the points, usually sectioned by chapter (if a book).
  • This is where the writer will focus most of his or her attention. He will ask and answer questions, usually from either a teaching/education perspective or an informative perspective. Think of a math text book versus Grandma’s memoir.
  • In fiction, the middle will explore the plot and parallel subplots more deeply. This is where the main antagonist (the enemy-person, circumstance, disease etc), plus other secondary and more minor characters will be introduced and explored more fully. In crime/mystery and suspense, the killer’s identity will be foreshadowed in this section.
  • Foreshadowing, conflict, pacing, dialogue, red herrings and character development are key in this section. Conflict will play a vital role here. Numerous conflicts up the ‘danger’ element.
  • Just when everything seems to be working in favor of the main character (protagonist), something will happen to throw off the balance and rev up the action. This is true of all genres.

3 – END:

  • The conclusion of the work or story; the wrap up of events. Usually the shortest component.
  • In non-fiction, the end will wrap up the main points and beliefs of the writer.
  • This section will serve to emphasize why the writer chose this topic and what the main reason is for writing about it.
  • In fiction, the end will come to a climax where action and threat is of utmost importance.
  • A main conflict is revealed: such as the identity of a killer, a love interest, the truth of a mystery or a self-realization for the character.
  • Resolution occurs and someone loses, someone wins. Loose ends are tied up. The reader is left feeling that all is explained, or at least most (a twist at the end is popular with series.)

©2007 Cheryl Kaye Tardif

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Source by Cheryl Kaye Tardif

Confessions of a Direct Response Copywriter: An “Old School” Advertising Man Reveals How to Make Your Marketing Twice as Effective at Half the Cost – … Secrets of Success in Business and in Life

Confessions of a Direct Response Copywriter: An “Old School” Advertising Man Reveals How to Make Your Marketing Twice as Effective at Half the Cost - ... Secrets of Success in Business and in Life

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An “Old School” Advertising Man Reveals How to Make Your Marketing Twice as Effective at Half the Cost 

Frank, opinionated, and – with 65,000 subscribers to his e-newsletter, The Direct Response Letter – Bob Bly dispenses advice, wisdom, and strategies on having a successful business and a happy life on a weekly basis. In this book are 85 of his most popular columns, including: 

  • Unlock the gold mine hidden in your content. Page 41.
  • Profit from John Steinbeck’s “lost” writing secret. Page 37.
  • 7 rules for writing retail advertising that sells. Page 10.
  • The 80/20 rule for freelance writing success. Page 127.
  • Optimizing white papers for search engines. Page 75.
  • The awful truth about cold calling. Page 56.
  • A lesson in education from Good Will Hunting. Page 139.
  • And more.



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Makler Heidelberg

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg
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