How to Transcribe an Audio or Video File With Bad Sound Quality

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How to Get the Best Out of Dodgy Audio

I have worked as a transcriptionist for the past eight years and have learned quite a few handy hints along the way on how to get the best from a poor quality piece of audio.

Here’s just a few:

· Turn it up! I use Express Scribe transcription software and there are many options for tuning poor quality audio. The first I try is the channel toolbar. Dictation audio often includes a floor threshold reading. Using the channel bar on Express Scribe, you can alter the dB (volume) of two channels within the audio. This can really help to make a speaker’s voice stand out. For extremely quiet, or distant speakers, a better option may be Extra Volume Boost within the Special Audio Processes menu. This can be used if the volume needs more power than the main controls give you. Extra Volume Boost increases volume by 10%.

· Fine Tune it! For extremely fuzzy sound, there are other Special Audio functions in the Express Scribe software. For fuzzy or muddy sounds, you can ‘Reduce Background Noise’ or use the ‘High Pass Filter’. Reducing the background noise should be your first option if the speaker is audible but possibly driving in a car, sitting in a cafe, or rustling papers whilst he dictates. In this function, the Express Scribe distinguishes sound by volume, so if the volume of background noise is almost equal to that of the dictation, using the High Pass Filter may be a better option. The High Pass Filter distinguishes sounds by pitch so here, only sounds above 450Hz are kept in the audio. This is a highly valuable tool for clearing up ‘muddy’ audio.

· Skip it. When you are typing a transcript and can’t hear a word, it’s very tempting to keep pressing that foot pedal and listening to that same word again and again. The truth is by doing this, you are actually making your job harder by taking the word out of context. Try noting the unclear and then listening to the end of the sentence, or even the next few sentences. Chances are that word may be repeated, and if not, you still increase your chances of deciphering it by considering, ‘What word is actually missing from this sentence?’

· Give it Time. Ever noticed that transcription seems to get easier midway into the audio? Sometimes it takes a while to get used to a speaker’s accent or to pick up jargon. If you find you’re getting a lot of unclears during the first five minutes or so of your audio, don’t get hung up on it. Note your [unclears] and carry on typing. You’ll most likely find when you go back to it later on, you will have adjusted to your speaker’s accent, pitch and style and will be able to catch that word a lot easier. Also, listening to one word again and again can give you a type of mental block. It can be helpful just to take a break by finishing your typing and then going back with a clear mind.

· Share it. If you have someone to hand, get them to have a listen. Two heads is better than one and you’ll be surprised how effective this method is.

· Guess it. – Well, sort of. This tip tends to work well for industry specific jargon. If you think a word is a company name, product or industry specific term, it can be very worthwhile to simply type it phonetically into Google and see what comes up. We all know that if you use the Autocomplete function in Google, the search engine gives you suggestions of words. Watch those words as you type each letter and check if any seem right. If one does, click onto it and check the meaning to see if it makes sense within the context of your transcript. Alternatively, type your word, and see what spelling corrections Google comes up with. This method is brilliant for finding the correct spellings for medication when taking on medical work. Beware, however, that you do check the meaning, spelling, and relevance of the word, and also listen to it one more time in the audio, just to be sure.

So if you are offering transcription services, you can be sure that with these tips you can always get the best from any audio file.

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Source by Samantha Linnane

How to Sell Your Writing Skills and Make Money

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Experienced freelance writers make money by ghost-writing scores of articles for clients across the world. the following useful article writing and selling tips will help budding writers find a firm foothold in the world of content writing. You can plan and prepare your writing career and prevent a ‘trial and error’ approach.

The important fact to bear in mind is that in order to be able to sell your writing services, you must be able to first follow certain basic rules of online writing.

Article Writing Tips

1. Writing formats: Get familiar with different writing assignments that you could be asked to complete. For example, writers could be asked to work on grant submissions (requesting funds for upcoming projects, usually related to NGO and charitable organizations), press releases (information regarding the release of a new product or service), website content (landing page, ‘about us’ page and so on) or e-books.

The formats of each form of writing is different. There is plenty of information available on the Internet; invest time reading about different types of writing.

2. Choice of English style: Articles are generally written in American, UK or Australian English. Please understand that these are all different variants of the English language. Clients may request that articles be written for a local or international audience. There will be subtle differences in spelling as well as language.

For example, ‘neighbor’ is American English while ‘neighbour’ is British English. Similarly, the Americans say ‘counselor’ while other countries spell the same word as ‘counsellor’.

If you are not sure, ask your client for further clarification. Correct spelling is a crucial factor in getting good work assignments. One incorrectly spelled word can ruin the impression.

3. Research: Researching abilities are another vital contributing factor in crafting a top-notch article. As a budding freelance writer, you may be required to write articles on various genres and subjects. These could include finance, banking, gardening, cooking, health, business, home decor, parenting among several others.

Obviously, we cannot be experts on every subject under the sun. Hence, intensive research will help you find out salient facts and useful information.

For example, if you are asked to write an article about savings accounts in the UK, sit down and read through four or five credible websites for information. If you read about ‘CD ladders’ (bank deposits), look for more information about CD ladders and how they work.

Your article should be able to provide solid, useful and well-researched information to readers. Your aim is to put together information from various sources so that the reader has access to all the information in one place.

A word regarding choice of websites: Please bear in mind that there are excellent websites and several mediocre and unreliable ones at the same time. Avoid gathering information from ‘forums’ etc. Stick to government, educational or reputed websites. This way you can be sure of providing your clients with updated and factual information.

4. Work count and keyword insertion: Keywords are important words and phrases that help an article or website attract traffic. They are based on the factb that all readers begin a search with a word or phrase.

For example, readers looking to travel to Paris may type in ‘Paris holiday’ in the browser to begin seraching for good Paris holiday deals. Clients may often request the use of certain keywords in order to help their website gain visibility.

For instance, a client may ask you to write an article of 500 words and use a specific keyword say, three times in the article. You must be able to weave the keyword skilfully into the article without making it appear contrived. Avoid simply ‘stuffing’ it in. Use the keyword in a way that sounds sensible and logical.

Ideally, keywords should be used in the title, first line and last line (however, this is not a hard and fast rule). Pay attention to required keywords and keyword count.

Please do not ‘fill’ in the article with useless, shallow information. In the world of freelance writing, this is referred to as ‘fluff”. As the name suggests, ‘fluff’ refers to useless, irrelevant information that is merely written to complete the required word count.

Here is an example to illustrate the point:

a. Everybody needs a bank account to manage their money. Banks offer customers several options for saving their money. Services and quality varies across banks.

b. Opening a bank account is an excellent way to manage your money. banks offer several options including deposits, saving schemes and investment portfolios to help you build a consolidated fund pool.

Option (b) is more informative sentence compared to (a). Avoid scrimping on research. Shallow and inadequate research is tantamount to producing ‘fluffy’ content.

5. Plagiarism issues: While crafting content for clients, please do not copy-paste information. All information on the Internet is copyrighted and copying is illegal. Read up information and then write it in your own words. That’s exactly what you are getting paid for.

Images, diagrams and photographs are also associated with strict copyright. Please ensure that you use legitimate, copyright-free images that you are allowed to use.

Taking unscrupulous short cuts is likely to lead to a bad name and poor reputation. You can also consider buying credits from ‘Copyscape’; a website that helps you check your work for plagiarism.

6. Deadlines: Deadlines are sacrosanct and writers must respect them implicitly. Examine the amount of work that you need to do and allot yourself the required time duration. Avoid promises that you will find difficult to honor. If you need four days to complete a piece of work, communicate that to your client honestly.

Missed deadlines and delays should be avoided because you will ruin your reputation with your client. He will end up leaving a poor review for you out of pique and frustration.

7. Choose your clients carefully: Please remember that there are thousands of clients looking for writing services. As with other fields of work, there are excellent clients. But not all of them are professional. During the course of your writing career, you may come across stingy, demanding, rude and unreasonable clients.

In my humble opinion, looking for good clients is far more important compared to looking for good projects. The simple reason is that a good project will come to an end while a good client will provide regular work.

This is not to say that you should not consider any work from new clients. However, learn to be discerning in your choice of clients. You are here to sell valuable writing skills. Conduct yourself with dignity and treat your work with respect. Not everyone can write – that’s why your client wants your services in the first place. Avoid selling your work short – this also harms the prospects of other writers.

Clients get the false impression that they can always strike a bargain and pay cheap rates for good work.

8. Client-writer etiquette: The good news is that 96% of clients are really nice. They are here to look for good writers and will be happy to pay for competent services. Ask for feedback from your clients after you complete a piece of work. Be ready to incorporate any requested changes/revisions (within reasonable limits). Build a good rapport with clients. Make it a point to respond to all queries within 24 hours. They will be likely to contact you for further assignments.

9. Use your spare time to build credibility and a good reputation. Write to well-known websites that accept articles for submission. This will help you prove your abilities and reliability to your clients.

There are thousands (indeed millions) of websites that require content, images and articles and blogs to be written. Online writers can earn a decent income from writing for clients who want to build websites. Additionally, you can write for agents who sell your work to clients.

Freelance online writing is an interesting field that is pleasurable and lucrative at the same time. All it takes is effort, diligence and perseverance to make a successful career out of online writing.

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Source by Nirupama N Raghavan

Rap Songwriters for Hire

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Rap songwriters for hire can help you write a rap song. Rap songwriters can organize your themes and ideas into a completed song. Hiring a rap songwriter is the ideal way to get a hit rap song created without spending countless hours writing, rewriting, and editing. Whether you just have an idea or already have a rough draft rap song, these rap ghostwriters can write your completed rap lyrics.

Rap songwriters for hire are extremely helpful for a rap band as they bring in loads of experience and amazing writing skills to the table to pin down some chart busters. The process of writing a rap song can be time consuming without the natural talent. As the professional writers work on writing rap lyrics for a living, they would put in everything to get it right and accepted. With rap lyric writing skills, they can write rap songs in styles and themes that are compatible with your flow. They would know the right art of mixing language, slang and style to write a rap tune.

Another benefit of rap songwriters for hire is that they enable you to focus on other related tasks such as music composition, productions, arrangement of tunes, or marketing. The professional songwriters for hire would have the necessary skills, tools and experience to write the song in quick time, and also you will compose the track to get a desired tone. Professional songwriters for hire are in a better position to implement all the components and sections such as the intro, hook, and verses that flow.

Songwriters for hire provide the advantage of having a well written rap song with a catchy title, hook, and lyrics. When seeking songwriters for hire, it is beneficial. This is extremely essential to ensure that the rapper gets an experienced and skilled songwriter who can pen potentially hit song tune that is a good fit for their client. The ghostwriter should be able to write lyrics based on the rapper’s needs and unique experiences.

Whether you are an established rap artist or you have always dreamed of becoming a rapper but are just getting started, a ghostwriter for lyrics can be a tremendous help. In addition to writing song lyrics, some of these ghostwriters can even write original music and bass beats, which is essential for a completed rap song. Most rap lyricists find it best to write the lyrics to an instrumental beat. This ensures that the flow and lyrics will coincide.

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How To Write Like A Journalist – 4 Key Elements

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Journalists are taught how to write news, which means writing no-nonsense copy that gets to the important information as quickly as possible.

In a hard-hitting news story, there is no room for opinion, advice, humor or commentary. Most importantly, you should dispense with flowery writing and twinkling prose. It is not a literary masterpiece that is going to impress your readers. It is the information you give them.

A news story is a stripped-down article that tells your readers what happened or who said what. Great news writing is as much an art as stringing together priceless prose for an elegant novel or thought-provoking poem.

And the best news writing involves the simplest words and the most basic of sentence constructions. You would be surprised at how much difficulty some rookie writers get into in trying to perfect this straightforward formula.

Journalists write to a set pattern most of the time. It is a tried and tested format that is pretty much unchanged for many years and successfully outlines key information in the correct order.

While journalists in different organizations around the world may tweak the formula here and there, news writing, by and large, involves for elements.

1. Angle – A news story without an angle is like pizza without cheese. Try biting into a pizza minus the cheese and all you get is …a sandwich. When you learn how to write like a journalist the first thing you should be taught is how to identify angles, which in effect is your topic and is the reason you are writing an article in the first place.

2. Introduction – Often called intro or lead, this is your first one or two paragraphs of your news story. While an angle defines what you are going to write, your intro is actually going ahead and putting it into words. Intros employ the who, what, when, where, why and how concept in order to get your story out quickly.

3. Quote – Almost all news stories have some sort of quote. A quote humanizes the story and also provides it with authority. The best kinds of quotes support what you write in your intro. Quotes should have the full name and title of the person being quoted. Less ideal is “reliable source” or “spokesperson” but sometimes it is unavoidable. News articles can be written without a quote but this is not ideal.

4. Attribution – Following on from quotes, you should do your best to make sure events are attributed to somebody, especially if you were not at the scene. In court reporting, this is of utmost importance, which is why in these types of stories you may see phrases such as “the court was told”, “he told the court” and “the court heard”.

News writing is not like informational articles. In a news story, you solve the problem as soon as possible. “How to” articles may identify problems and then offer a solution. In news writing, however, you do not have time for this.

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What is Bhrigu Bindu

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Dr. Shanker Adawal

Bhrigu Bindu is an imaginary, but very sensitive mid-point of Rahu-Moon axis. When any planet, benefic or malefic including Rahu & Ketu, during transit aspects or conjuncts this point, some momentous favourable or unfavourable events takes place. This Bindu (point) is arrived at by adding the longituders of the Moon and Rahu (counted from zero degree of Aries) and then dividing the total by 2. For example if in a natal chart, the Moon is in Taurus at 19 degree, 47′ and Rahu is in Leo at 29 degree 27′. Then the Bhrigu point will be (1-19-47 + 4-29-27)/ 2 = 3- 9- 44′ or 9 degrees 44′ in sign Cancer. The lord of the sign occupied by Bhrigu Bindu, always give good results provided it is not weak.

The Moon, Sun, Mercury & Venus, during their cycle will form two such results, one of aspect (7th) and the other of conjunction. The outer planets, Mars, Jupiter & Saturn will form four such results per cycle, three for aspects (4th, 7th & 8th by Mars, 5th, 7th & 9th by Jupiter and 3rd & 7th, & 10th by Saturn) and one for conjunction in each of their average cycle of 18 months, 12 years & 30 years respectively. It should always be remembered that the effects of transit by conjunction are more potent than those by aspect. There is some doubt about Rahu & Ketu, but normally it is considered similar to those of Jupiter in each of their cycle.

A benefic Jupiter during transit, as referred above, will give favourable results such as progress in studies, birth of children, getting employment/ marriage, promotion in service/ business, increase in wealth or fulfillment of long cherished desires. Fast moving benefic planets like Venus, Mercury or Moon, will indicate small gain of wealth/ happiness, meeting of friends/ relations, pilgrimage, rejoicings & festivities etc. Some times when two or more benefics simultaneously aspect/ conjunct this mid-point, give increasing magnitude of favourable results. Benefic planets & Bhrigu Binduif posited in Kendra/ Trikone to each other in natal chart, produce good & auspicious results.

Saturn, a slow moving planet, during transit over the Bindu produces unfavourable results such as chronic sickness, domestic unhappiness, sickness/ separation from family, sudden loss of wealth or even death etc. Mars has a peculiar liking for blood, accidents, quarrels and Sun acts a separatist or unhappy situations. Transit of Rahu/ Ketu causes events all of a sudden, on a big scale and from unexpected quarters, mental sufferings/ worries due to state actions, or poisonous infection etc. A weak planet when transiting Bhrigu Bindu, always gives bad results relating to the house it owns. But lords of malefics houses, having minimum strength and having 6th or 8th position in relation to the Bindufail to produce bad results to the house they own.

Conclusion

There are many sensitive points in a horoscope, transits of planets over which cause/  indicate important events/ trends in a native’s life. The nature of these events/ trends depends on and is modified by various factors. In the previous chapters we have seen how nature & strength of planets and their relative position from a reference point lagna or the Moon sign denotes the results/ trends. However these are modified by concept of Vedha/ Vipreet VedhaNakshtra considerations, Saptsalakha Chakra and Moorthy Nirnay methods of use of Bhrigu Bindu. These modifications have been explained with the help of 11 tables and appropriate examples. However transit of slow moving planets or retrograde planets are more apparent than of other planets.

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Source by Shanker Adawal

Seven Signs You Might Be A Closet Writer

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Sure you like to read books–in fact at times you enjoy reading them more than living in the real world–but liking a good story, craving a world written of imagination is different from actually creating one, right? Surely a writer is born, calluses on fore and third fingers, and not made? Not necessarily. American master bard Walt Whitman didn’t produce his masterpiece Leaves of Grass until age 35–and nobody has yet figured where his genius came from, near ready-made. Here are seven signs you might be harbouring a fugitive author inside, a writer hidden and desperate for escapism.

1. You really like books. I mean really. You read under the covers as a child, not to mention in the car, on the bus, even heaven forbid at lunch while others played. More than just a borderline literary obsession, yours was the sad ennui that life in the real world could never reach the same heights as on the page. Maybe your true direction in life is to be found in perfectly kerned type. Maybe there you will reach your true heights.

2. As an adult you often avoid reading. Not because you’ve grown out of it, but because your standards in reading continue to grow, and frankly, you’ve been let down one time too many by a poorly written book; you’re just too good a reader for writing that is below you. A writer stuck in the closet is guaranteed to have higher standards than most; perhaps it is time for you to wear the shirt that fits.

3. It’s a cliché–but fiction is the home of clichés so read on–you can name the books that changed your life, whose well-crafted, compelling truths and hidden insights helped you to see the world in different ways, yourself as well. Maybe you have a written truth to offer the world of your own.

4. You often tell others of the faults in what you are reading, how you think a novel could be written better. You intuitively know what makes good writing, know whether an author has something to say before you’ve half-travailed the page. You would write books reviews if only you were a writer you sadly exclaim. Well maybe you should–pick up a pen and you are.

5. When you read words you hear the voice of the author inside you–in fact yours is the long held belief that somehow you know the authors whose work you have read, although you have never met. Maybe you actually do. Writing, like other forms of art, is a bridge between the author and reader, and poet, artist, and meditation teacher Sri Chinmoy writes that if we are aware of this bridge, we can not only enter into the work of a writer, but also acquire their capacity:

“When you want to create something, you want to invoke beauty to inspire you. So at that time, you have to identify yourself with someone who is creating. You want to do something unique, but the type of thing that you want to do somebody has already done or is doing. Only you want to surpass him. So try to identify yourself with the consciousness of the person who has already done the thing or with the person himself, and try to get inspiration, aspiration and capacity from him. If you want to write something spiritual, read my writings and identify with them. If you want to draw something, take your ideal artist and identify with his creation.” [1]

6. You long to discover the hidden meaning of things, the hidden motivations and depths in the hearts of others, the mystery of the world around you, also inside you. Most good writers do–it is why they write–their fascination for life equal if not greater than for writing itself. Follow the path of such writers to self knowledge; pen in hand, start yourself to write.

7. You have always been a storehouse of facts, a walking library of information. You can remember everything that happens to you, often astound friends with precise recall of events and their sequence, without quite understanding why. Your mind itself is a narrator: reporting, observing and describing the events of your day, albeit unbidden usually–a tape recording whose reels are without end. Song-writer Kristin Hersh began writing songs because “If I don’t turn ideas into songs they can get stuck in me and make me sick.” [2] Even if not to this extreme, if your mind is bursting its bounds, put it’s excess creativity and energy to good use; start writing it all down. You might also want to try meditation, and acquire a much needed on and off switch.

According to Hersh, “songwriting is about shutting up instead of talking.” [3] Whether of songs or entire books, if you want to be a writer, now is the time to bite the apple rather than talk about it.

Footnotes:

1. p.42, A Galaxy Of Beauty’s Stars, Sri Chinmoy, 1974

2. Kristin Hersh, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kristin_Hersh

3. Ibid

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Source by John Paul Gillespie

The Importance Of Research- Why We Do Research

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We must first understand what research is.  It is another word for gathering of information.  The more information we have the closer we get of making our own decision.  Research is the result of advancing knowledge created in the past.  There are people from all walks of life that contribute to gathered information.  These are ordinary people and extraordinary people.  They include, teachers, students, scientists, professors, scholars, business owners, librarians, book keepers, writers, politicians and many more unknown out there.  These are everyday citizens we interact with.  They all help with the flow information that people use for self help.

Research is designed to solve a particular existing problems so there is a much larger audience eager to support research that is likely to be profitable or solve problems of immediate concern.  We also must understand how research impact our decision making.  Most people make decisions without gathered informations to back them up.  Only few do.  The problem is most people aren’t patient enough to put in the effort.  Research requires time, effort, and sometimes money to have the evidence you need to make a sound decision that’s why many avoid it.  The research you do and evidence you gathered will have impact on your future.  Be adviced, considered the risks or consequences of making an important decision with inadequate evidence.

In conclusion research is very vital to our everyday decision making.  It arms you from wrong informations and save time and money.  It is important to your success as you take on life’s challenges and career decisions making.  But be careful though, becasue too much research without action on what you’ re learning is not good either.  The question is how much information is enough?  How much information can you afford?  Information obesity can be research problem just my advice.  Research plus action will most likely guarantee a successful research.  Now go out there and make good decisions.  I wish you success.  To learn more about taking charge of your future go to my resource box at http://www.unlimited-mlmwealth-online.com Email: prince@unlimited-mlmwealth-online.com cell: 612-363-7576

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Source by Prince Samuels

Writing an Author Bio – Examples of Professional Bios

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Not only is it useful to know what you need to include in an author bio, it is also useful to see examples of how your vital information should look. This article will cover both what you need to include in your author bio and some examples of tight professional bios.

The Six Rules You Should Use to Write a Professional Bio

  1. Always write in the third person. Your professional bio is not an autobiography. You don’t say, “I have been a ghost writer for four years.” You say, “Jane Doe has been a ghost writer for four years.” It’s easier to trust a bio that appears to have been written by an objective observer.
  2. List provable facts. Don’t waste time sharing your dreams. “Jane Doe has always wanted to pursue writing as a career.” That’s not appropriate here. Only include information that you can back up with proof. “Jane Doe has provided her services independently and through the online employment forums oDesk and Elance.” These are facts that can be confirmed by a search on these forums.
  3. Include pertinent education and experience. If you have taken courses, you may want to include this, especially if your list of provable facts is difficult to confirm independently. Example later.
  4. Bring in memberships. Mention any memberships you have in writing clubs, business groups, etc.
  5. Keep the writing tight. Don’t get wordy. Display your best writing skills. Keep sentences short. Make sure every sentence really needs to be there.
  6. Hook, grab and hold. Make sure your bio includes something that is unique about you. Give the reader something to remember about you.

These rules don’t have to be applied in the order given. All you really need to do is include as many of them as possible. You may not have any education. Don’t fret over it. Build up your experience so you can change your bio.

Examples of These Rules in Action

“Denise Rutledge has been working with writing challenged clients for over four years. (How long you’ve been providing a service is useful information.) She provides ghost writing, coaching and ghost editing services. (What your services are is also useful) Her educational background in family science and journalism has given her a broad base from which to approach many topics. (Education and experience.) Her writing skills may be confirmed independently on oDesk.com and Elance.com. (Provable facts.) She especially enjoys preparing resumes for individuals who are changing careers. (Hook, grab and hold.) You may learn more about her services at Writing as a Ghost.com. (Second hook, grab and hold.)”

“Writing challenged clients” in the opening sentence is also a potential hook, grab and hold.

“Jane Doe writes SEO articles for businesses that want to see their Google search rankings surge. (What she does.) Her articles have appeared in a number of e-zine sites, including EzineArticles.com, ArticlesBase.com, HubPages.com and TRCB.com. (Way to confirm her skills.) She contributes articles about SEO techniques regularly to Site-Reference Newletter.com. (Her experience level.) Her articles focus on balancing informative with SEO needs–but never at the expense of providing an entertaining read. (There’s the hook.) Learn more about how Jane’s SEO articles could grow your business by visiting her blog at JaneDoeSEOArticlesBlog.com.”

You might notice that neither example includes a membership. If a rule doesn’t apply, don’t worry about it. If you have to weigh which is more valuable, experience always wins.

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Source by Denise Rutledge

Film and Video Editing May Be the Most Important Part of Making Movies

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To the novice, film and video editing sounds like one of those completely technical subjects, only possibly interesting to people with very logical and pragmatic minds, much like engineers. Visions of darkrooms and sterile-looking studios filled with all types of inexplicable mechanical equipment, where rolls of film negatives are poured over and scrutinized by serious-looking people, then diced, sliced and spliced back together, somewhat completes the overall mental picture. Clinical, stark, precise. But in actuality, film and video editing is much more than celluloid or electronic image surgery. In fact, it’s quite the opposite.

Think of it this way; someone shoots a video of your favorite cousin’s wedding. The end product is a nice, mostly continuous documentation of the event, with abrupt starts and stops here and there when the main activity changes or moves to a different area or location that necessitates a different “shot”. The end result is a compilation of pictures and sound that is considerably better and hopefully more memorable and satisfying than still photographs, but still leaves a lot to be desired.

However, if the same raw video was placed into the hands of a skilled editor, the end result would be quite different. The resulting piece would tell the story of the culmination of your cousin’s three-year romance, as narrated by several key family members. It would capture and convey to the viewing audience the couple’s wedding day emotions of love, and joy and appreciation for one another and family, anticipation of the new life the couple intends to create together, a bit of sadness for the life they are forever leaving behind, and so on. In other words, in the hands of a skilled editor, the video becomes a “story” with a beginning, middle and end; a cohesive synopsis of the couple’s romance. A day in the life…

What most people not in the film or video industry don’t realize is that film and video editing is an art form. Editing is arguably the most important element of film or video production. It is in the editing, the art of arranging pictures and dialog and sounds, that a finished film product is able to communicate a story first envisioned by its writer, and subsequently by a director and producer to its intended audience. Days, weeks even months of shots captured on film or video must be studied, interpreted analyzed and finally distilled into a story lasting a fraction of the time it took to capture it all.

People outside the film making industry have little or no idea about “post production” and the crucial part it plays in the production of a film or video work. It is because of the significant importance of this phase of film and video production that the process takes an extended amount of time to complete.

Much more that cutting and splicing pieces of cellophane together or merely arranging video sequence, editing is a wonderful blend of technical knowledge and skill combined with an artist’s creativity and craftsmanship. It is moving, adding, deleting, juxtaposing, scenes, sounds, and images to develop film shots and video clips into a certain context, create specific imagery and timing, evoke particular emotion, create specific imagery and mold them into a story.

Film editing as a craft began in the late 1890’s in the very earliest days of motion pictures. In the intervening years between then and now, anyone interested in learning about film or video editing, usually attended college courses or one of a number of reputable film schools to learn the craft.

In his book, “The Technique Of Film And Video Editing”, considered one of the best teaching and training tools for directors , Ken Dancyger highlights the history of film editing from its origins. He speaks specifically about the editing of great cinematographers such as Alfred Hitchcock and Charlie Chaplin and Buster Keaton, taking a detailed look at the fundamental principles of film and video editing. He discusses ideas, practices and styles and choices for editors in the context of theory, the history of film and video editing, and practice. He also discusses new technology and the impact it has in terms of the art of editing.

One of the greatest changes to film and video editing occurred with the introduction of computer editing. Hand cutting and splicing of film, as well as the more complicated, mechanical and “linear” process of video editing, became tedious and outdated with the advent of computer editing in the early 1990’s. Editing on computers gave rise to a whole new creativity prized by film editors, as well as lower costs and much more efficiency in terms of video editing.

Whether for film or video, the editing process occurs in three basic steps. These include capture, the editing process itself, and putting the product in a distributable form. During the capture phase, the actual “shots” or picture images are compiled into a format from which they can be edited. During the actual editing process, the collection of shots are organized in a desired sequence and sound is added through “sound mixing” until they form a comprehensive storyline. Once this has been accomplished, the film or video is finalized in the desired format whether film or high-quality video for distribution.

As technology continues to advance, the ways in which film and video are edited will continue to develop and progress. As it stands today, computers and user friend video editing software as well as the Internet have opened the doors to editing so that it is available to not only professional film and video editors. Now students of film and video and film making novices, as well as journalists, writers and the general public have unprecedented access to video editing tools. Several popular video editing programs make film and video editing possible for professionals as well as novice editors, including Avid Express Pro, Adobe Premier Pro, Sony Vegas, Final Cut Pro and Apple Final Cut Studio 2.

With today’s technology and the advantage of personal computers, digital camera equipment and the availability of knowledge from new and increasingly powerful software programs, almost anyone with the desire, can learn film and video editing, produce commercial products and even feature movies from their home or personal studio.

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Source by Adam Fulford