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LIZ PURCELL - freelance writer with a Bachelor of Arts in English from San Francisco State University

Grant Services: Pay on Commission, Percentage, or Flat Fee

From time to time there is an online debate on whether or not grant writers can charge their clients for services on a commission or percentage bases.

The basic argument for charging clients a commission / percentage is that the consultant can make more money. For example, on a grant with an award amount of $100,000, at a 10% commission the grant writer would receive $10,000. If the award were $1 million the grant writer would be due $100,000. The greater the value of the grant award the more the consultant stands to make, without any increase in the amount of work performed.

The reasons for not charging a commission or percentage are more based in business and accounting principles.

The process of grant writing and applying for grants is a fund-raising expense not a program expense. Most grant awards are for programs and program expenses. Therefore it would be unethical for the accountant to take funds from program allocations to pay for fund-raising expenses.

The act of grant writing is a pre-acquisition cost. It is logical that the applicant has to write the grant proposal before they submit before the grant proposal is reviewed and awarded. The grant period, or the time the grant award monies can spent, are usually for cost occur on after the grant award is received, or as a post-acquisition cost (with a few exceptions). Grant funding seldom covers cost which occurs prior to the grant award being approved.

Some of this problem originates in part with government budgets which states that a certain percentage of the budget can be allowed for consultant fees. The seeming logic is that – since the grant writer is a consultant then they should be entitled to that percentage of the budget.

All personnel fees, PIs, staff, and consulting, must be calculated on an annual salary or hourly rate bases. None of these line items can be calculated on a straight percentage of the total grant basis.

The funders themselves do not like to award grant funding to grant applications which pays the grant writer a percentage. This is because funders want to see most of their money going to meeting the mission and priorities of their funding purpose.

Finally, certified grant writers put the philanthropic interest above their personal gain.

All professional associations in fundraising in general, and grant writing specifically, hold that charging a commission or percentage of the grant award is an unethical practice.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by John Porter

How to Make Your Own Clay Roof Tiles

All too often we tend to look at manufactured products today, and just assume that they were made using some type of complex machinery or, processes that are out of our reach. The truth is however, that quite often this just isn’t so, and clay roof tiles are a fine example.

No Gas Fired Kiln Required

Would you believe that you can make your own ceramic products just the same way that they have been made for centuries, and in fact you don’t even need a gas fired kiln. It’s the same way that bricks, and tiles are still being made to this day in wood stoked ovens in Mexico.

You Need to Locate a Cheap Source of Clay

The first thing you’re going to need, is a voluminous supply of good quality clay, and if you’re willing to look around in the area where you live, you’ll most likely locate a natural source somewhere. Just dig it up, load it in garbage bags, and lug it home in the back of a truck.

It Has to Be Worked Well Prior to Being Formed

The clay has to be worked well prior to being formed, and this is traditionally done with the feet in some type of large container or, containment area. To make the tiles it’s then rolled out on a table, using ¾ inch sticks on each side as guides to regulate the thickness.

After the sheet is rolled out, the next step is to use a plywood template to scribe out, and cut out the overall shape of the clay roof tiles you plan on making. If they are to be flat then stack them to dry flat. If they are to be curved then place them over a curved drying surface.

Use a Template to Cut Out the Clay Roof Tiles

After they have dried for several days the next step is to arrange them min piles in such a way that they are safe from breakage. After that dried firewood is arranged around the piles of tiles, being careful not to damage the unfired ceramic pieces.

Build a Brick Oven Around Your Product

Then the way they do it in Mexico, is they then build a kiln out of brick around, and above the tiles. So where do they get the brick? The answer is simple. They form them with molds out of the very same clay they make the tiles from. They then ignite the wood, and allow the clay roof tiles to fire.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Sandy Ferris

The Three Roles of an Organizational Spokesperson

The prospect of being interviewed by a reporter creates anxiety in even the most confident professional charged with serving as an organization’s voice in communicating with media. Training helps increase the likelihood that this spokesperson relays an organization’s key messages clearly, and in a manner that fits a journalist’s needs. Understanding the three spokesperson roles-expert, educator, and salesperson-is the first and most important component of this training.

As the individual to be interviewed, the designated spokesperson is the one who the reporter wants to speak to about a topic at a certain time. The spokesperson has the needed knowledge and perspective. The reporter considers the spokesperson to be an expert.

As an educator, the spokesperson offers insight to a reporter so that he or she emerges with a clearer understanding of the topic. Reporters vary in journalistic experience and subject matter knowledge. Even the most experienced reporter doesn’t know everything. An effective spokesperson has information the reporter doesn’t have, particularly regarding company activities and industry trends. As an educator, the spokesperson acknowledges the reporter’s expertise and crafts the content and delivery of his or her remarks accordingly. The main challenge here is for the spokesperson to share information without coming off as patronizing or arrogant.

Finally, the spokesperson is a salesperson for the organization, cause, product, and/or service. Public relations and other professionals approach reporters with story ideas because they see the media as a powerful means of communicating what their organizations have to offer to current or potential stakeholders. To this end, the “spokesperson as salesperson” role demands an enthusiastic, energetic communication style.

However, it’s imperative to recognize that reporters do not want to be sold, as a salesperson might attempt to persuade a prospective client about a product’s merits. Their goal is to write stories that interest readers, viewers, listeners, and other media consumers. A reporter’s purpose is to serve this audience, NOT to do a commercial for a company. That’s why the salesperson role comes third, after the expert and educator. In short, the most effective organizational spokespersons mute their marketing and sales orientation when they talk to reporters. They highlight what the subject of the interview means to the reporter’s audiences while avoiding a treatise on why their company’s offerings are the best.

In short, the spokesperson’s goal is to provide useful information that meets a reporter’s needs and communicates an organization’s key messages. It’s admittedly challenging to balance these tasks while filling the three roles identified. Yet it’s invaluable over the long term for building productive media relationships that in turn serve marketing and broader organizational objectives.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Mitchell Friedman

Prolific Writers

Prolific authors write; they don’t just dream about it. A good example is Georges Simenon of Inspector Maigret fame. He writes a book quickly, at one sitting so to speak. The first draft of each chapter is written longhand in a single afternoon. The following morning he transcribes it with his typewriter, revising and rewriting as he types. The afternoon is spent writing the next chapter, but before this happens he outlines a plan for the novel.

Perhaps one should do as Charles Dickens did. Early in his life he learned shorthand as a reporter and would write many of his novels first in this manner. He also was a prolific writer, in shorthand and longhand, no typewriter or computer for him. A man of great energy and vitality, he wrote voraciously but he did many other things as well.

Anthony Trollope, another 19th century novelist was also a prolific writer who adhered to a very strict schedule for work. He invariably arose at 5:30 am and wrote until 11:00 whereupon he breakfasted and spend the remainder of the day in personal activity. As a result, he was able to write 47 novels and 16 books. He was methodical worker who considered writing as a trade, probably one of the reasons his books have lost esteem.

Honoré de Balzac (1799-1850) is another prolific writer of the 19th century who wrote from midnight to dawn almost every day of his life, thus turning out a million words per year. Although he was prodigious he was always poor and that might account for his abundant output.

Victor Hugo (1802-1885) like Balzac was a prolific French writer of the 19th century. He too spewed out poetry and novels at an unbelievable rate. His most famous novels are The Hunchback of Notre Dame and Les Miserables, but they are a small example of the many works that he produced at the amazing rate of over a million words a year.

If these writers–with paper, pen, and pencil–could effect the volume of writing they did, then writers today should easily do as much. Writers today have computers and word processors, with spell checkers and grammar checkers, and other aids that make the process easy and enjoyable. Probably what is lacking is the focus and vision that these writers had. Perhaps lives today are too full of computers, television, films, theater, music, and other distractions that impinge on the writer’s time. Yet is possible with planning and discipline to put ideas to paper in poems, stories, novels, articles, essays, etc. Although the competition to be published probably exceeds that of writer of the 19th century and the 20th century, the way to publication is more varied and available.

Traditional publishers are being replaced by electronic publishers who now print books on demand or to order. Soon the publishing industry and booksellers will have to wake up to this new phenomenon and change the way they do business to satisfy the new prolific writers.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Charles Goulet

Why Professional Copywriting Is A Must


You use them every day.

You send emails to customers, create marketing materials, produce content for your website… the list is endless.

How much thought are you giving to the words you use?

What you write will have a massive impact on how people perceive you and your business, which is why professional writing is essential.

Getting it right: web copy

For this article, I shall concentrate on website copywriting.

After you’ve spent a small fortune on your web design, you wait eagerly for the link from your developer to see the pre-launch site in all its glory.

Tentatively, you click the link, and your eyes widen with excitement, as it’s all that you hope it would be. Apart from one thing – where there should be powerful words, there is an awful lot of Lorem Ipsum.

That’s right; it’s up to you to find the right words, not your web designer.

You have two choices: attempt to write it yourself or start looking for a professional copywriter.

Why should you opt for the second choice?

Have you ever tried to write about your business?

If you have it probably went along the lines of “We are experts in our field. Working from our state-of-the-art offices in… “

Big mistake.

You’ve missed the point of effective copy completely.

If you want your website (and all your other marketing materials) to have an impact, you must write from your customers’ perspective, and that’s not easy to do.

You plough on regardless and eventually produce enough text to fill your website.

The site is published, and then you wait.

What happens?

Nothing. Your website doesn’t rank, it doesn’t attract visitors, and it doesn’t produce any leads because the copy you’ve written concentrates on you, your business and your achievements. You’ve forgotten your customer.

It’s time for a rethink.

How a copywriter writes

Once you’ve found a writer, you think you can work with it’s time to have a meeting.

You chat about your project, and she asks you loads of questions about what you’re looking to achieve, who your customers are and what they need and loads of other stuff.

She goes away with a detailed brief and starts to work on the first draft. Once it comes through you can’t believe your eyes – it is pretty much spot on because it’s:

  • Written from a unique perspective (i.e. they can distance themselves from your company and put themselves in your customers’ shoes to make sure it offers the information they want to know)
  • Written for your customers
  • Shows the benefits you provide your customer not your achievements as a company
  • Visible to the search engines
  • Compelling and persuades the reader to take action
  • Designed to sell not inform
  • Professional and reflective of your business and your brand
  • Simple and unambiguous

That means it’s a customer magnet and, because it’s telling them what they want to hear, it’s converting visitors into customers.

Content that “talks” to your readers and is focused on their needs makes your company one that puts its customers first – and that’s worth its weight in gold.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Sally Ormond

The Cost Of Freelance Copywriting

How long is a piece of string?

Seriously, there is no universal rate card for copywriting because, like most professions, you get a wide range of experience and expertise. Some ‘copywriters’ (i.e. those who call themselves copywriters but that have no commercial writing experience) charge a few pounds; others (the ones with experience and who know what they’re doing) charge hundreds or thousands of pounds.

So how can you be sure you’ve found a good one and not one that’s going to palm you off with substandard written drivel?

How to find a great freelance copywriter

1. Ask around – Ask colleagues and other trusted business people whom they use. That way you’ll get an insider’s view of what the writer is like.

2. Google – Granted, a Google search will only bring up those who are rather good at SEO (but that’s what you need, right?), but it will come up with a selection of great writers along with their portfolios.

3. Call them – The best way to work out whether you’ve found the right writer is to talk to them. Give them a call and sound them out. If you click, the chances are they are the writer for you.

4. Professional Copywriters’ Network – Check out the PCN’s website. Granted, there’s no guarantee that the writers are fantastic, but that fact that they’ve stuck their neck on the line and are listed on the site would suggest they’re not half bad.

Why are there no prices on freelance copywriters’ websites?

As I said before, there is no universal rate card for freelance copywriting.

Every writer will approach charging differently so here are a few things to look out for:

· By the word – if they charge by the word, run a mile and don’t look back. Firstly, they won’t know how many words they’ll need. Secondly, they could write rambling drivel and charge the earth for it. Thirdly, if you restrict them to a certain number of words you’ll get crap writing.

· By the day/hour – For a one-off project, this isn’t a good idea. Unless you specify a number of days/hours you could be opening yourself up to a massive bill. However, if you’re looking for ongoing help (i.e. a writer on a retainer) this is perfect. You can hire them to work for you a certain number of days per month and use them as an extension of your marketing team.

· Fixed fee – This is the best option for one-off projects. The price will include all research, content and a certain number of revisions. Most writers will ask for 50% up front with the remainder being invoiced once the copy has been signed off.

How can I be sure I’ve found a good freelance copywriter?

You have to go with your gut on this one.

If you’ve done your homework, checked them out, chatted to them, and asked them loads of questions about their past work and are happy with their responses, you should be in safe hands.

Ask to see past work (although remember those projects were written to a specific brief so won’t necessarily be what you’re looking for, but they will show the breadth of the writer’s ability). Look at whom they’ve worked with in the past. Read their testimonials – all of these will build a picture of how good the writer is.

Isn’t it easier just to let the marketing agency write the content for me?

That is always an option (and often a cheaper one), but it’s worth bearing in mind that the writer in the agency is not going to be a copywriting specialist. They’ll be fairly junior.

How do I know that?

An agency is not going to pay the going rate for an experienced and highly skilled copywriter. Their in-house writer will probably also do other stuff too, will write in their house style (i.e. not in a way that will reflect your business) and therefore generate generic content.

You want something that will reflect your brand’s personality.

I want you to write for me

Great! Get in touch and let’s have a chat about what you’re looking for. If I don’t think I’m the right fit for you, I’ll put you in touch with other writers who I think will be able to deliver what you’re looking for.

You know, as an aside, years ago I was advised by a well-respected copywriter, not to market myself as a freelance copywriter because, in his eyes, the word ‘freelance’ devalued what I do.

I’ve always had an issue with that.

First and foremost, I am a copywriter. With over a decade of experience, I’ve worked with some of the world’s biggest brands (and that is working directly with them and not through an agency) and some of the most diverse SMEs you’ll ever come across.

Secondly, freelance is how I choose to work. I don’t want my wings to be clipped and to only work for one company. Having the freedom to work for a variety of industries enriches my work.

I’m proud to be known as a freelance copywriter and will continue to use that term.

It shows I am independent, worldly-wise (in a writing capacity), and a mine of ideas that will add a new dimension to every project I work on.

Getting back to the original question ‘how much do freelance copywriters charge?’, I urge you not to look at it as a cost but rather as an investment.

The content you pay for will be around for a long time. It has to be written with careful thought to ensure it resonates with the audience you’re trying to reach.

If you pay peanuts, you’ll get crap. If you pay well, you’ll get content that’s tailored to your specific needs (and those of your audience), and that will perform time and time again.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Sally Ormond

What to Chart When You Can’t Chart Everything: Practical Tips for Nursing Documentation

The variation in electronic health records leaves quite a bit of latitude for health care providers to document patient care. Some electronic health records provide many options to capture patient care, while others provide very few options, and both are inherently known for not capturing enough patient care necessary to demonstrate that a standard of care has been met.

An example of documentation that is frequently seen in medical records and is often presented as a problem in the courts has to do with skin breakdown. The prevention of skin breakdown fundamentally requires that patients who are not able to adjust their position are turned every two hours. According to the National Pressure Advisory Panel, many factors are taken into consideration when evaluating a tissue injury, but the first and primary intervention for all patients regardless of “other factors” is to turn patients. When a tissue injury develops (bed sore), stage II, stage III, stage IV, or suspected deep tissue injury, the scrutiny of care will include proving that the patient was, at a minimum, turned to even get close to meeting the standard of care for the prevention of wounds.

Nursing negligence may be alleged for failing to turn the patient every two hours. In addition, if the medical record does not show that the nursing plan of care includes an actual or potential problem addressing alteration in skin integrity it is assumed the turning patients was not done. If a wound develops, it is possible that a correlation can be made between the nurses’ failure to turn the patient led to and contributed to the skin breakdown.

When the medical record clearly demonstrates the patient was turned every two hours and still developed advancing staged wounds, then “other physical factors” are considered as significantly contributory. If the other physical factors do not exist then the documentation may be considered falsified charting. Other physical factors include, but are not limited to: lab results, diabetes, coronary artery disease, previous surgeries, age, infection, etc.

Examples of when care has not been documented and caused additional scrutiny of care are the following:

• Head of bed elevated. Elevation recorded with specific degrees is important when care involves aspiration precautions, limiting sheer, or hemodynamic measurements.

• Response to titration of medications in a critical care area. Titration of medication is expected to occur until a desired effect is attained particularly when orders are written in a protocol format. Medication management recorded in the medical record must reflect appropriate clinical judgment by the nurse.

• Fall prevention interventions. It is not enough to simply record or check off: fall prevention protocol in place. Should a patient fall on your shift, will the records show that what is listed in the protocol was done to prevent the fall? Be specific regarding interventions used when caring for patients determined to be at a higher risk for injury.

Medical record entries must be factual, accurate, complete, and timely. Use the FACT rule. It is very easy to remember.

FACTUAL means there must be enough detail of the facts that the story depicting the patient’s care is clear. Facts are clinical findings a nurse knows to be true. Facts may be lab results, clinical assessment, medications, vital signs, and it could also mean what the patient says. Put what a patient says in “quotations”. First-hand knowledge is another way to determine what should be charted. The best practice is to chart only that which is known to be true. An exception to this practice is during a crisis intervention when the situation utilizes a scribe as one might do during a code or a rapid response. The scribe charts as the events unfold and the documentation is reviewed for accuracy after the patient is stabilized by the health care team.

ACCURATE means the facts must be recorded correctly. The labs must be entered precisely if they are not crossed over through an electronic health record portal system. The movement of a decimal point just one place when recording a medication administered can convey that the dose administered was 10 times or even 100 times more than the dose ordered. Imagine if a record reflected that a nurse administered 10 mg of Atropine instead of 1 mg. How would this error be defended if a catastrophic result seems to be related to the medication error?

COMPLETE medical record entries are thorough entries. Don’t leave the reader guessing about patient care provided. Check the completeness of medical record entries by using: “O P Q R S T”.

“O” is for onset.

“P” is for precipitating or aggravating factors.

“Q” is for quality or quantity

“R” is for radiating

“S” is for situation

“T” is for time (time of day)

The final term, TIMELY. Medical record entries are expected to be written contemporaneously. All that means is charting as soon as possible after the event(s) occur. Timely in a high acuity setting is not the same as timely in a lower level of care, which includes long-term care settings. The higher the level of acuity; more entries are expected to be recorded regarding the patient care. A lower level of acuity will have fewer orders, fewer interventions, fewer interactions which equates to fewer entries representing the care rendered. The frequency of entries should be adjusted according to facility policies and level of patient acuity.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Rachel C Cartwright-Vanzant

The Resurrecting Writer Series: Home Girls – A Black Feminist Anthology

Roaming the blogosphere as I am wont to do, I came across a challenge on calyx press’ blog. Of course, at 43, I do not qualify as a “young feminist” (if I ever did) but still it set me to thinking about my intentions to write a review of Home Girls: A Black Feminist Anthology.

To a young woman unanchored, on the verge of being culturally divorced from self, the anthology was one of a series of buoys clung to and devoured like I was a member of the Donner party – not the daughter of Salma. Comprising both poetry and prose, the book represents discussions black women were having with other black women – and society in general – about what it means to be a black woman. The scope of the conversation is wide-ranging. It includes the Combahee River Collective Statement which includes articulations such as

This focusing upon our own oppression is embodied in the concept of identity politics. We believe that the most profound and potentially most radical politics come directly out of our own identity, as opposed to working to end somebody else’s oppression. In the case of Black women this is a particularly repugnant, dangerous, threatening, and therefore revolutionary concept because it is obvious from looking at all the political movements that have preceded us that anyone is more worthy of liberation than ourselves. We reject pedestals, queenhood, and walking ten paces behind. To be recognized as human, levelly human, is enough.

I’m not entirely clear on the concept of identity politics. However, it does strike me as the essence of self-determination to push your own cause. In the case of black women, the cause should be black women. Home Girls is one of the spots along my literary read trail where I realized it was acceptable, revolutionary even, to come out from the background, open my mouth and express my full self.

Home Girls is also where I first encountered the work of poet Kate Rushin. Her poem, the Black Back-ups,

is dedicated to Merry Clayton, Cissy Houston, Vonetta Washington, Dawn, Carrietta McClellen, Rosie Farmer, Marsha Jenkins and Carolyn Williams. This is for all of the Black women who sang back-up for Elvis Presley, John Denver, James Taylor, Lou Reed, Etc, Etc, Etc.

This is for Hattie McDaniels, Butterfly McQueen, Ethel Waters



Ruby Begonia

Aunt Jemima

Aunt Jemima on the Pancake Box

Aunt Jemima on the Pancake Box?




Aint chure Mama on the pancake box?

Mama Mama

Get offa that damn box

And come home to me

And my Mama leaps offa that box

She swoops down in her nurse’s cape

Which she wears on Sunday

And on Wednesday night prayer meeting

And she wipes my forehead

And she fans my face for me

And she makes me a cup o’ tea

And it don’t do a thing for my real pain

Except she is my Mama

Mama Mommy Mommy Mammy Mammy

Mam-mee Mam-mee

I’d Walk a mill-yon miles

For one o’ your smiles

This is for the Black Back-ups

This is for my mama and your mama

My grandma and your grandma

This is for the thousand thousand Black Back-ups

And the colored girls say*

After reading this poem, I couldn’t hear Lou Reed’s Walk on the Side as just a song. Instead, it now expressed a relationship where the talent and artistic skill of black women is used to enrich other artists – musically as well as economically. It’s Big Mama Thornton and Elvis played out all over the cultural landscape. Or would be – except that Big Mama’s daughter wants her mother and wrote a poem about it; a poem which changes the dynamic landscape of understanding.

* © 1983 Donna Kate Rushin

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Tichaona Chinyelu

Unimaginable Power of the Content – Most Sacred Secrets of Effective Copywriting Revealed

Few of the web site owners do not understand the importance of well-written and well-optimized content. The demand on experienced and skilled copywriter, whether he specializes in the web site copywriting, offline or internet copywriting, is constantly rising. However, how could one define experienced and highly- skilled copywriter? What skills and experience should he possess to design and compose effective copywriting content?!

Undoubtedly he should know SEO copywriting process, none of the web site content can not be written without it. Copywriter should understand how to get high rankings on your web site, how to perform keywords search process and organize and optimize your web site. Certainly it might be advisable to see some of the web sites designed by your potential copywriter. One should evaluate them thoroughly in order to understand the ability and aptitude of your copywriter. These are just of the few requirements that should be met by experienced and highly-skilled copywriter. Certainly, the format of this article does not allow enlisting all of them. Each company that hires copywriters sets special standards and requirements for its individual copywriting process.

Experienced and highly-skilled copywriter is an essential specialist in your advertising copywriting process. Upon his skills, aptitude, creativity and originality depends the efficiency of your advertising campaign. Apart from pure technical knowledge, your web site copywriter should possess several other skills which are necessary for the writing and composing of appealing and attracting content. The advertising copywriting should meet several important criteria, such as the ability to write in clear and easy-to-read style; moreover the text of your content should induce your visitor to make some actions. Effective advertising copywriting should communicate with your customers, should produce trust and induce them to purchase the products and services at your company. That means that your text must emphasize the advantages and uniqueness of your products and services, and you company in general. In order to achieve these results one should emphasize on the training and the improvement of composition and writing skills.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Peter Finers

8 Top Project Design Skills For Nonprofits and Grant Writers

Successful and sustainable programs and projects begin with a solid design up front and include such design tools as logic models, SMART objectives and environmental scanning. This article will focus on the 8 top “project design and development” skills that non-profit personnel and grant writers should have.

Project design and development is one of 6 main grant professional skills measured by the Grant Professionals Certification exam. These include seeking, project designing, writing, managing, ethics and professionalism, and relationship-building.

Here are the 8 primary skills related to designing and developing your projects that lead to ultimate success and sustainability …

8 Skills for Effective Project Design And Development

To be effective in program and project design and development, you should be able to …

  1. Solicit and incorporate input from stakeholders including clients that is meaningful and substantive. This includes including their contributions into the initial design of new concepts and programs.
  2. Build partnerships with other agencies that are applying.
  3. Educate agencies around financial and program-specific compliance with funder regulations and requirements.
  4. Use “logic models” whenever applicable to assist in program design. The logic model communicates the purposes, components and sequence of activities of a project.
  5. Distinguish between the various key components of project design, such as goals, objectives/outcomes, activities, evaluation and sustainability, as well as tools that optimize design planning like SMART objectives, activity time lines, evaluation plans and sustainability plans. SMARTER objectives are ones that are S = Specific, M = Measurable, A = Attainable, R = Realistic and T = Time-based.
  6. Use data-driven design elements that are descriptive, qualitative and statistical, as well as data-driven design tools such as environmental scans, gap analyses and gap-closing strategies, SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analyses, web-based surveys, feasibility studies and needs assessments.
  7. Identify resources that exist in the community that might aid in designing and developing projects and programs.
  8. Insure that your design is accurate,  defensible and leads to increased program success and sustainability.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Phil Johncock

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